You don’t need to make *all* the parts, just the parts that are critical to function and performance. In this case it’s the light source and the mirrors. Everything else like stepper motors, mounts, cables, etc. can’t really be sanctioned or blocked without just an outright ban on trade. Furthermore, the non essential parts are often generic in a supply chain, and China is a major supplier for most of these kinds of generic components already. Talking about the number of parts misidentifies where the challenge of the technology is. The difficult part of developing this technology are really about optimizing the physics and integrating all subsystems to work coherently and effectively. It’s not in the fact that there are thousands of parts.I disagree with that sentiment because the DUV/EUV lithographs already developed have many tens of thousands of parts within them which rely on the entire world to create. The amount of parts and differing scientific and industrial fields allow only a few countries in the world the potential to do it. Namely....
If you had them going it alone, as in they were being technologically sanctioned like China, then only the USA and China would be able to do it. ASML is a microcosm of this. It is basically a systems integrator. Without the support of the most advanced industrial countries, ASML would be nowhere.