There is a game that fits that. Its been billed as EVE Online on smartphones, and its from a Chinese developer. Came upon them after news that a game got into some controversy of banning pro-HK communities and clans within the game. There is also the bonafide version of EVE Online that is coming to mobile, in partnership with Netease, which is a big time Chinese game developer and publisher.You know how most Space Opera have this "United Earth" as its basis? Well, what if humanity started colonizing space without a unified Earth? What if China, US, and Russia each had their own colonies that grew into major powers, much like how the colonization of the Americas proceeded. Over time, we end up with 3 rival factions, bound by culture and language. The American colonies form a decentralized federation, the Chinese colonies are united under a republican dominion, and the Russian colonies are part of a theocratic empire.
The game describes a scenario like what you mentioned but some details are different.
There are four factions in the game. The Economic Community of Dawn is the new China. You can see from their cities, their high tech and robotic ships, and because the inhabitants have Chinese names. This represents an ultra capitalistic faction.
The second faction is the Republic of Svarus. SV sounds Soviet to me, and Rus is Russia. They represent a group of tough, determined people that has gone through hardship and oppression, and has fought their way through. Their ships look rough, but are rich in detail.
The third faction is the Oracle Empire. Monarchic and theorcratic. The people dress like Jedi. They have sleek ships with long sweeping curves.
The fourth faction is Neo Europan Federation. They sound like some German stereotype to me. Ship designs tend to be blocky. Every faction has a design theme for their ships. Might is Right kind of theme.
Don't expect space cowboy like themes here, acting like a solo maverick trying to succeed in a hostile universe, like Elite Dangerous, like the Freelancer games or Star Citizen. Games like EVE Online is about being anti-heroes, forming up with other people to form evil alliances and plot to ruin someone's day.