News on China's scientific and technological development.


Does Tencent accept sea turtle software engineers? Saw in news that Huawei no longer hire US citizens so guess that would be a no go. But seems that there is already a large pool of software engineers in China, and the competition would be incredibly tough.
At face value, that's what it says but Chinese look at your face and you tell them you want to work for your country, they will consider you Chinese regardless of your passport. What they meant is US citizens with no Chinese blood need not apply.
I don’t think the sea turtles are as hot as before. The sea turtles have become seaweed long time ago...

Late 1990’s and early 2000’s was the good time for sea turtles. So many of them went back and plus the domestic competition. They became seaweed around 2010... I don’t know what they are called now.
They're still sea turtles. The shiny mysticism has been lost; in the 90's a sea turtle could go back and spout nonsense and people would eat it all up and say he's a genius. Now, he has to actually know his shit and not just be full of it.
 
Thursday at 7:01 PM
Yesterday at 1:59 AMand
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Lancé le 5 Juin par une CZ-11H depuis un semi-submersible positionné en mer Jaune, le satellite Jilin-1-03A a renvoyé au sol ses premiers clichés aujourd'hui, pris au-dessus de Los Angeles. Il pèse < 40kg, et dispose de caméras d'une résolution < 1,1m pour une fauchée > 18km.
Translated from French by
Launched on June 5 by a CZ-11H from a semi-submersible positioned in the Yellow Sea, the Jilin-1-03A satellite returned to the ground its first shots today, taken over Los Angeles. He weighs < 40kg, and has cameras of a resolution < 1.1m for a mowed > 18km.
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Décollage du lanceur CZ-11H - H pour Hai, mer en chinois - depuis un semi-submersible de CIMC Raffles le 5 Juin en mer Jaune.
Translated from French by
Launch CZ-11H - H launch for Hai, Sea in Chinese - from a semi-submersible CIMC Raffles on June 5th in Yellow Sea.
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Hendrik_2000

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Via emperor competing with western auto maker is huge wall to climb But EV offer China possibility

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'Made in China 2025' forges ahead with EV dominance in sight
From batteries to motors and finished cars, China expands footprint


AKITO TANAKA, Nikkei senior staff writer
MAY 28, 2019 23:33 JST

SHANGHAI -- As the Sino-U.S. trade war morphs into a fight for technological supremacy between the world's two biggest economies, Washington is focused on delaying -- if not outright derailing -- Beijing's "Made in China 2025" initiative.

It is unclear whether the U.S. will succeed. But China clearly is forging ahead quietly with the 10 goals of the initiative, chief among which involves becoming an indispensable source of electric vehicle technology such as batteries and drive motors.

"Production of EVs without Chinese-made parts is no longer possible," said Hidetoshi Kadota of Nissan Motor's joint venture in China, Dongfeng Nissan. Kadota heads Dongfeng Nissan's development team for the Sylphy Zero Emission, the Japanese automaker's strategically important electric vehicle for the Chinese market.

Nissan is a pioneer in the field, having released the world's first globally mass-produced electric vehicle -- the Leaf -- in 2010, a project in which Kadota was involved.

"At that time, all parts were made in Japan," said Kadota, speaking at the Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition in April.

But times have changed. For the Sylphy, Nissan uses batteries made by Chinese manufacturer Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd., known as CATL.

Batteries account for nearly one-third of an electric vehicle's cost, and Chinese batteries dominate the market.

"No companies can compete with Chinese makers in the production scale and cost of EV batteries," said Shinichi Murakami, head of the technical center at Dongfeng Nissan.

In the Government Work Report presented to the National People's Congress in March, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang underlined the importance Beijing places on adopting clean-energy vehicles. The premier has repeatedly stressed this point.

Beijing debuted the Made in China 2025 effort in March 2015 and featured it prominently until drawing Washington's ire as part of the larger trade dispute. Li's 2019 report made no mention of the initiative, raising speculation that Beijing may not want to incite China hawks in the U.S. further.

But Li continues to cite new-energy vehicles as part of the country's policies to clean up the environment, a tacit admission that Made in China 2025 remains in full swing and that dominance in the electric vehicle sector is part of the plan.

China's environmental policy, announced in October 2015, calls for reducing the total consumption of oil by new cars to 4 liters per 100 km by 2025. With current consumption at roughly 6.7 liters per 100 km, Beijing estimates that 7 million new-energy vehicles will need to be sold to achieve the goal.

The government now requires that automakers meet quotas for new-energy cars, with the goal to have at least 80% domestically sourced key components. To this end, Beijing is heavily subsidizing the country's EV sector.

CATL is a prime example of the government's largesse: At the Shanghai auto show, nearly half of the new electric vehicles were said to be equipped with the company's batteries. In 2018, seven of the top 10 battery makers were Chinese.

Chinese companies also are focusing on drive motors, another key electric vehicle component. Since becoming a major supplier to Chinese EV makers, Jing-Jin Electric Technologies has bolstered efforts to sell its motors to overseas automakers.

Made in China 2025 also has spawned a wave of promising startups in the increasingly digitized auto industry. Hesai Technology, founded in 2013 in Silicon Valley by Chinese entrepreneurs who subsequently returned to China, is using light detection and ranging, or Lidar, to develop a remote sensing system, one of the core parts of autonomous-driving systems.

CEO Li Yifan and other U.S.-educated partners founded Hesai with investment from venture capital and Chinese search engine Baidu. Regarding Hesai's decision to leave the U.S., Li said China was the only place suitable for mass production of Lidar systems.

Hesai is hot on the heels of American company Velodyne Lidar, the world's largest maker of Lidar systems.

"The market will soon become a competition of scale," Li said, expecting competition with Velodyne. Hesai already operates a plant on 13,000 sq. meters in Shanghai to bolster production.

Though new-car sales in China decreased 2.8% in 2018 to 28 million units, the nation remains the largest auto market.

Before the EV wave, China knew that it would have taken years to catch up with Japan and the U.S. in the production of vehicles with internal combustion engines. But with the auto industry facing its biggest technological shakeup in 100 years, China sees electric vehicles and related technology as a way to overtake rivals.

China wants to become a major exporter of electric vehicles, as well as a major supplier of EV technology and materials including rare earth metals, which are crucial to the production of new-energy autos.

BMW is one of a number of foreign automakers that have taken notice. Praising China's EV production know-how, Chief Financial Officer Nicolas Peter told reporters at the Shanghai motor show that BMW will partner with China's Great Wall Motor to manufacture its electric Mini in China for global markets.

Meanwhile, American EV manufacturer Tesla is building a plant in Shanghai with an annual production capacity of 500,000 vehicle. As this figure is twice that of most other auto factories, many industry insiders say Tesla intends to export many of the cars produced there.

Beijing plans to end subsidies for new-energy vehicles in 2020, letting the market grow of its own accord. Tony Wang of IHS Markit said concerns remain about the strength of the new-energy market.

"But if China has a domestic annual market for 7 million new-energy vehicles in 2025, Chinese companies will have good chances of putting supply chains under their control," Murakami of Dongfeng Nissan said.
 

Hendrik_2000

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Little known company based in Ningde Fujian province dominate the battery management technology for EV that even Toyota plan to work with them Founded in 2011 only 8 years old amazing Must be manned by graduate from Xiada

Toyota to Buy Batteries from China’s CATL and BYD as It Revs Up Electric Car Plans

By
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- 2019 06:38 PM


Shigeki Terashi, Executive Vice President of Toyota. Photo: VCG.

Chinese battery makers Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Ltd. (CATL) and BYD Co. have agreed to partner with Toyota Motor Corp. as the Japanese automaker dramatically accelerates its plan to develop and sell green vehicles.

Details of the deal have not yet been announced, but the Financial Times said CATL and BYD are expected to supply lithium-ion batteries for Toyota-brand electric vehicles to be released in China and other markets starting next year. It is the first time Toyota has teamed up with a Chinese battery manufacturer.

Toyota also agreed to buy batteries from Japanese companies Toshiba Corp. and GS Yuasa Corp., adding to the supply it already gets from Panasonic Corporation, the Nikkei and the Financial Times reported, citing the company’s statement on Friday.

Contemporary Amperex Technology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Industry
Automotive
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,
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Systems, Battery RecyclingContemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited (CATL)
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Founded 2011; 8 years ago
Founder Zeng Yuqun
Headquarters
Ningde,
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Province
,
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Key people
Zhou Jia (CEO)
Number of employees
10,000 (2016)
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Website
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Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited, abbreviated as CATL, is a Chinese battery manufacturer and technology company founded in 2011 and specialized in the manufacturing of
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for
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and
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, as well as
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(BMS).
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It is headquartered in
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,
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and operates manufacturing bases in Ningde, Qinghai and Liyang. Its three main
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centers are based in Ningde, Shanghai and
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.
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CATL’s annual sales volume amounted to 11.84 GWh of energy storage capacity in 2017.
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Based on annual shipments, CATL is the world's first and largest provider of
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,
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and
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battery solutions followed by
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(
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) and
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. The company aims to have a global lithium-ion production capacity of 50 GWh by 2020.
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In 2018, it was announced that CATL will establish a new battery factory in
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,
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,
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.
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announced in 2018 that it would buy €4 billion worth of batteries from CATL for use in the electric
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and
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vehicles.
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Partnerships[
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]

CATL’s battery technology is currently used by a number of electric vehicle manufacturers. In the international market, CATL is collaborating with
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,
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,
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and
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.
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In China, its clients include
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,
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,
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,
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Bus,
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,
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,
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and
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.
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In January 2017, CATL announced its plans to enter into a strategic partnership with
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, focusing its collaboration on project management, engineering and battery pac

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Hendrik_2000

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E China's Zhejiang University makes key advances in graphene sector
Peng Xiaoyun



Graphene, a one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms, is a kind of material that will boost 5G's potential. And Zhejiang University in east China has made breakthroughs in the field of graphene, with two graphene products granted international patents.

Graphene manufacturers are clustered in the UK, China, and the United States. China boasts the most manufacturers with over 4,000. According to China Daily's report, half of the world's graphene-related patents have been filed in China.

Graphene's flexible properties can be used to develop a number of high-tech products. The thinnest material is one that has a research focus in China. A graphene research team from Zhejiang University has been developing the emerging sector for several years.

The team has introduced a number of graphene products to the market. Two of those, single-layer graphene oxide and graphene composite fiber, have been granted international patents.


Professor Gao Chao from the team said that the annual output of graphene products is expected to reach 10 tons. "We have made great progress in the sector. The graphene industry has entered a new era. China is now leading the international graphene technology," Gao noted.

The graphene sector's production value reached 18 million U.S. dollars in 2017, jumping nearly 70 percent from the previous year, accounting for a little more than one-fifth of the global market. And the global graphene industry is expected to grow at an annualized rate of 40 percent from 2018 to 2026.

In 2017, the demand for graphene for lithium batteries constituted more than 50 percent of the total. But that proportion will decrease in the future as graphene is increasingly used in new energy, composite materials, wearables, thermal management, energy conservation and environmental protection.
 
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Hendrik_2000

Brigadier
Why Graphene is important in Li Ion battery Primer on Graphene. Unlike conventional engine, China is in the forefront of EV technology specially Li Ion battery which make up about 30% of the total cost And basically will decide whether EV is going to be successful or not Graphene play such important a role in the improved Li ion battery extending range and faster charge as well as safer
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Graphene and batteries
Graphene, a sheet of carbon atoms bound together in a honeycomb lattice pattern, is hugely recognized as a “wonder material” due to the myriad of astonishing attributes it holds. It is a potent conductor of electrical and thermal energy, extremely lightweight chemically inert, and flexible with a large surface area. It is also considered eco-friendly and sustainable, with unlimited possibilities for numerous applications.
The advantages of graphene batteries

In the field of batteries, conventional battery electrode materials (and prospective ones) are significantly improved when enhanced with graphene. A graphene battery can be light, durable and suitable for high capacity energy storage, as well as shorten charging times. It will extend the battery’s life, which is negatively linked to the amount of carbon that is coated on the material or added to electrodes to achieve conductivity, and graphene adds conductivity without requiring the amounts of carbon that are used in conventional batteries.

Graphene can improve such battery attributes as energy density and form in various ways. Li-ion batteries (and other types of rechargeable batteries) can be enhanced by introducing graphene to the battery’s anode and capitalizing on the material’s conductivity and large surface area traits to achieve morphological optimization and performance.


It has also been discovered that creating hybrid materials can also be useful for achieving battery enhancement. A hybrid of Vanadium Oxide (VO2) and graphene, for example, can be used on Li-ion cathodes and grant quick charge and discharge as well as large charge cycle durability. In this case, VO2 offers high energy capacity but poor electrical conductivity, which can be solved by using graphene as a sort of a structural “backbone” on which to attach VO2 - creating a hybrid material that has both heightened capacity and excellent conductivity.

Another example is LFP ( Lithium Iron Phosphate) batteries, that is a kind of rechargeable Li-ion battery. It has a lower energy density than other Li-ion batteries but a higher power density (an indicator of of the rate at which energy can be supplied by the battery). Enhancing LFP cathodes with graphene allowed the batteries to be lightweight, charge much faster than Li-ion batteries and have a greater capacity than conventional LFP batteries.


In addition to revolutionizing the battery market, combined use of graphene batteries and graphene
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could yield amazing results, like the noted concept of improving the electric car’s driving range and efficiency. While graphene batteries have not yet reached widespread commercialization, battery breakthroughs are being reported around the world.

Battery basics
Batteries serve as a mobile source of power, allowing electricity-operated devices to work without being directly plugged into an outlet. While many types of batteries exist, the basic concept by which they function remains similar: one or more electrochemical cells convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery is usually made of a metal or plastic casing, containing a positive terminal (an anode), a negative terminal (a cathode) and electrolytes that allow ions to move between them. A separator (a permeable polymeric membrane) creates a barrier between the anode and cathode to prevent electrical short circuits while also allowing the transport of ionic charge carriers that are needed to close the circuit during the passage of current. Finally, a collector is used to conduct the charge outside the battery, through the connected device.



When the circuit between the two terminals is completed, the battery produces electricity through a series of reactions. The anode experiences an oxidation reaction in which two or more ions from the electrolyte combine with the anode to produce a compound, releasing electrons. At the same time, the cathode goes through a reduction reaction in which the cathode substance, ions and free electrons combine into compounds. Simply put, the anode reaction produces electrons while the reaction in the cathode absorbs them and from that process electricity is produced. The battery will continue to produce electricity until electrodes run out of necessary substance for creation of reactions.

Battery types and characteristics
Batteries are divided into two main types: primary and secondary. Primary batteries (disposable), are used once and rendered useless as the electrode materials in them irreversibly change during charging. Common examples are the zinc-carbon battery as well as the alkaline battery used in toys, flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary batteries (rechargeable), can be discharged and recharged multiple times as the original composition of the electrodes is able to regain functionality. Examples include lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics.

Batteries come in various shapes and sizes for countless different purposes. Different kinds of batteries display varied advantages and disadvantages. Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are relatively low in energy density and are used where long life, high discharge rate and economical price are key. They can be found in video cameras and power tools, among other uses. NiCd batteries contain toxic metals and are environmentally unfriendly. Nickel-Metal hydride batteries have a higher energy density than NiCd ones, but also a shorter cycle-life. Applications include mobile phones and laptops. Lead-Acid batteries are heavy and play an important role in large power applications, where weight is not of the essence but economic price is. They are prevalent in uses like hospital equipment and emergency lighting.

Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are used where high-energy and minimal weight are important, but the technology is fragile and a protection circuit is required to assure safety. Applications include cell phones and various kinds of computers. Lithium Ion Polymer (Li-ion polymer) batteries are mostly found in mobile phones. They are lightweight and enjoy a slimmer form than that of Li-ion batteries. They are also usually safer and have longer lives. However, they seem to be less prevalent since Li-ion batteries are cheaper to manufacture and have higher energy density.

Batteries and supercapacitors
While there are certain types of batteries that are able to store a large amount of energy, they are very large, heavy and release energy slowly. Capacitors, on the other hand, are able to charge and discharge quickly but hold much less energy than a battery. The use of graphene in this area, though, presents exciting new possibilities for energy storage, with high charge and discharge rates and even economical affordability. Graphene-improved performance thereby blurs the conventional line of distinction between
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and batteries.


Graphene batteries combine the advantages of both batteries and supercapacitors
 
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Hendrik_2000

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(cont)

Graphene-enhanced battery products moving towards commercialization
Graphene-based batteries have exciting potential and while they are not yet fully commercially available yet, R&D is intensive and will hopefully yield results in the future.

In December 2018,
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, that in theory may even lead to electric vehicles that run on water. The metal air batteries use a metal as anode, air (oxygen) as cathode and water as an electrolyte. A graphene rod is used in the air cathode of the batteries. Since Oxygen has to be used as the cathode, the cathode material has to be porous to let the air pass, a property in which graphene excels. According to Log 9 Materials, the graphene used in the electrode is able to increase the battery efficiency by five times at one-third the cost.

In November 2017,
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. In fact, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) said that using the new graphene ball material to make batteries will increase their capacity by 45% and make their charging speed five times faster. It was also said that the Samsung battery that will use this graphene ball material will be able to maintain a temperature of 60 degrees Celsius that is required for use in electric cars.

In November 2016,
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that can remain functional at higher temperature (60° degrees as opposed to the existing 50° limit) and offers a longer operation time - double than what can be achieved with previous batteries. To achieve this breakthrough, Huawei incorporated several new technologies - including an anti-decomposition additives in the electrolyte, chemically stabilized single crystal cathodes - and graphene to facilitate heat dissipation. Huawei says that the graphene reduces the battery's operating temperature by 5 degrees.

In June 2014, US based
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, a lightweight flexible power source that can be attached to any existing bag strap to enable a mobile charging station (via 2 USB and one micro USB ports). the product weighs 450 grams, provides 7,200 mAh and is probably the world’s first graphene-enhanced battery.



In May 2014, American company
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. The products, said to become available roughly around the end of 2014, include a line of graphene-enhanced anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries. The battery materials were named “NANO GCA” and are supposed to result in a high capacity anode, capable of supporting hundreds of charge/discharge cycles by combining high capacity silicon with mechanically reinforcing and conductive graphene.


Developments are also made in the field of graphene batteries for electric vehicles. Henrik Fisker, who
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that will sport a graphene-enhanced battery, unveiled in November 2016 what is hoped to be a competitor to Tesla. However, the Fisker battery was later announced to not rely on graphene.

In August 2014,
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. It is unofficial but reasonable to assume graphene involvement in this battery.

Many other companies are also working on incorporating graphene into various kinds of batteries, for more information we recommend reading our
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.
 
now I read
09:35, 11-Jun-2019
China's lunar rover travels over 212 meters on Moon's far side
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A lunar day equals 14 days on Earth, a lunar night the same length. The Chang'e-4 probe switches to dormant mode during the lunar night due to lack of solar power.

During the sixth lunar day of the probe on the Moon, the scientific instruments on the lander and rover worked well, and about 1,654 MB of scientific detection data were sent to the core research team for analysis.

As a result of the tidal locking effect, the Moon's revolution cycle is the same as its rotation cycle, and the same side always faces the Earth.

The far side of the Moon has unique features, and scientists expect the Chang'e-4 could bring breakthrough findings.

The scientific tasks of the Chang'e-4 mission include low-frequency radio astronomical observation, surveying the terrain and landforms, detecting the mineral composition and shallow lunar surface structure, and measuring neutron radiation and neutral atoms.

Using data obtained by the visible and near-infrared spectrometer installed on Yutu-2, a research team led by Li Chunlai, with the National Astronomical Observatories of China under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, found that the lunar soil in the landing area of the Chang'e-4 probe contains olivine and pyroxene which came from the lunar mantle deep inside the Moon.

The discovery, recently published in the academic journal Nature, could help unravel the mystery of the lunar mantle composition and the formation and evolution of the Moon and the Earth.

The Chang'e-4 mission embodies China's hope to combine wisdom in space exploration with four payloads developed by the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Saudi Arabia.
 

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