Indeed, Chinese arrogance has been perhaps the greatest enemy in Chinese history. Hopefully, it has been forever stamped out. So long as the Century of Humiliation is never forgotten, perhaps that arrogance will never return. Confidence is vital, but arrogance caused the Ming to burn Zheng He's fleets, and the Qing to ignore the West. The price of eternal prosperity is eternal vigilance.The only critique I have of the article are the 400 years part and the portrayal of China as some backwater s**thole that somehow made it to the top. The Qing dynasty was one of the largest or possibly the largest economic powerhouse in the world. Western intellectuals all wanted to copy China’s philosophy and culture until the First Industrialization in the early 19th century. The only mistake made by the Qing was that they didn’t do their own investigation of the West. Such an investigation would have made them realize the threat the West posed. China has never been a beggar like many other countries have been. In its history, many of its dynasties were one of the major players in the world during their eras. The Chinese just made a mistake which is the one I said above. They aren’t victims/prey; they just let down their guard due to their complacency.