Germany Carl Zeiss, heart of Dutch ASML Lithography Equipment.

Weaasel

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EUV only uses reflective mirrors not lens due to lens made of fused silica which absorbs EUV light.
The mirror is about 40 layers of alternate Mo/Si and each layer is 6.8nm thick.
The surface of the mirror has to be very smooth , no more than 0.2nm RMS.. meaning the unevenness of the mirror is a few atoms thick.
0.2nm RMS means only allow 2 atoms difference.
Have to use ion beam to "sand" the layer to remove extra atoms.

That's why its super difficult to make mirror for EUV optics. All optics vendors in China i talked to have not even heard such things ,






Any state funded research by such institutions such as the CAS or even by major private Chinese entities to attain such capabilities?
 

Weaasel

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This thread is very interesting and I've learned a lot from what tidalwave shared, but does anyone really think anything he publicly disclosed that both the US and Chinese government aren't already fully up to speed and aware of ? It is like a Dan level player watching two Professionals at the game of Go, the Dan player can comment and give outside commentary to the Kyu people watching, but his input wouldn't be of much use to the actual opponents in the game.
But it is very informative to all who follow what he shares.
 

Weaasel

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People underestimate the difficulty of the semiconductor industry. No one can ever be fully independent in this day n age.

There's a never ending chain of tools that need to be acquired.

Let's use the mirror in the EUV machine for example.

A mirror requires machines that can fabricate it to tight tolerances and software that can design it. You also need to coat it with special materials.
The fabrication machine has to be state of the art. The tools that make that machine is also state of the art. Then there's a never ending chain of machines for each part of that machine.
There are few people that can operate optical design software in this world as it requires physics aptitude (quantum mechanics,...)
The coating requires world experts in chemistry and material sciences. The coating then needs another never ending chain of machines to make it.

You literally have to go from figuring out how to acquire the minerals/chemicals for each part of each machine/material to the final assembly of just a mirror.
One can actually, even though it will come at a substantial cost initially. And given the determination of the US to prevent China from getting access to supplies of equipment, parts, and partially processed materials for ALL high tech industries, and indeed its capability of influencing through enormous pressure that includes threats to foreign countries and suppliers which would otherwise not mind doing business with China, China must actually indeed source its entire supply chain domestically. China must gain the capability to produce anything worth producing within China.
 
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