Chinese Military Articles: Translation Thread


siegecrossbow

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在第12届珠海航展上,以“新涂装、新编队、新姿态”惊艳亮相的歼-20三机编队,无疑是本届航展给观众带来的最大“彩蛋”。

歼-20从上届航展双机编队1分多钟的“惊鸿一瞥”,到本届航展三机编队点燃全场高潮,始终让公众充满期待。空军“功勋飞行人员金质荣誉奖章”获得者、歼-20首飞试飞员李刚7日接受了新华社记者专访,细说歼-20试飞背后的精彩故事。
At the 12th Zhuhai airshow, the stunning debut of three aircraft formation of J-20s with "new paint, new formation, and new appearance" is undoubtedly the greatest "Easter Egg" offered by the airshow.

From the one minute glimpse of its two aircraft formation at the last airshow till the blazing climax of this year's three aircraft formation, J-20 has kept the general audience full of anticipation throughout. On November 7th, PLAAF's "Golden Medal of Honor for Meritorious Pilots" winner and J-20's test pilot on its maiden flight, Li Gang, accepted an interview from Xinhua journalists and provided a detailed account of the behind the scenes stories of J-20's test flights.
 

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歼-20首飞成功时间:刚好凑成八个“一”

2011年1月11日,中国歼-20隐形战斗机在成都首飞成功。作为中国新一代隐身战机,歼-20开启了中国空军的“20”时代,也宣告了“隐身时代”的到来。

回忆七年前的那一刻,李刚至今难掩兴奋。“作为一名试飞员,能够首飞歼-20验证机,是幸运中的幸运。”

2011年1月11日下午1时11分,李刚驾机成功起飞。

“时间刚好是八个‘一’!”李刚说,时间上纯属巧合。原定7日进行的首飞计划,因为成都的天气原因被推迟到11日。

当天13时11分,李刚驾机成功起飞。对于这一历史时刻,身为军人的李刚,更愿意把它理解为下午1时11分,刚好凑成八个“一”——“倍感自豪。”李刚说。
The takeoff time of J-20's successful maiden flight: there are exactly eight "ones" by coincidence

January 11th, 2011, China's J-20 stealth fighter successfully flew for the first time in Chengdu. As China's first generation stealth fighter, J-20 not only initiated PLAAF's "Era of 20s", but also announced the arrival of its "Era of Stealth".

Even to this day, Li Gang has difficulties concealing his excitement when recalling that moment seven years ago. "As a test pilot," he said, "it is a tremendous fortune to test fly J-20's demonstrator on its maiden flight."

On 1:11PM, January 11th, 2011, Li Gang took off successfully.

"There are exactly eight 'ones' in the time of takeoff!" Li Gang said. He added that the takeoff time was just a coincidence. The first flight was originally scheduled for the 7th but was delayed till the 11th due to inclement weather in Chengdu.

Although Li Gang technically took off on 13:11 that day, Li Gang --- as a soldier --- prefers to interpret the time of this historic moment as 1:11 in the afternoon because there are exactly eight "ones" coincidentally. "[It makes me] feel proud." said Li Gang.
 

siegecrossbow

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中国最梦幻战机:“信息在眼前,控制在指边”

被问及对歼-20的驾驶体验,李刚用了两个具有无限想象空间的字来形容:“梦幻!”

歼-20的驾驶座舱不仅宽敞、简洁,而且布局合理,驾驶体验极为舒适,被李刚称为中国迄今“最梦幻战机”。

“所有看过歼-20座舱的人都会感叹:这么整齐,电门这么少!”李刚说,在歼-20的座舱里,无论软硬开关,都极具现代感。

李刚说,歼-20的座舱,不管什么电门,根据开关一看就知道是干什么用的;夜间飞行,一摸就知道是什么电门,有着很好的防差错设计。“操作就像我们在手机上玩游戏一样,从发现目标到导弹发射非常快。”

一名飞行员曾形容驾驶歼-20的体验说,一体化液晶显示屏,简洁的电门开关……真正实现了“信息在眼前,控制在指边。”

“也许现实中很多科幻的东西,正在通过科技成为现实。”李刚说。
China's most surreal fighter plane: "information before your eyes, control at your finger tips"

When asked about J-20's piloting experience, Li Gang described it using a (two characters in Chinese) word that left infinite room for imagination: "Surreal!"

J-20's cockpit is not only spacious and neat but is also reasonably configured, making the piloting experience extremely comfortable. Li Gang refers to it as China's most "surreal fighter" by far.

"Everyone who has seen J-20's cockpit will exclaim: so neatly organized, so few electrical switches!" Li Gang said. He also stated that every switch in J-20's cockpit, soft or hard, looks extremely modern.

Li Gang said that one can figure out the purpose of every electrical switch in J-20's cockpit just by glancing at it; during night time flights, one can figure out the purpose of a switch just by touching it -- a very good error-proofing design. "Controlling the plane is like playing games on our phones, and the time from target detection to missile launch is very fast."

One pilot once described the experience of piloting the J-20 as "integrated LCD display and simple electrical switches truly realized the goal of 'information before your eyes, control at your finger tips'".

"Maybe many thing from science fiction are being realized through technology." Li Gang said.
 

siegecrossbow

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座舱布局:试飞员在图纸上“画”出来的驾驶座舱

李刚说,座舱布局对一架飞机非常重要。歼-20的座舱设计,被李刚称为是“最好的办公室”,其成功之要诀,在于歼-20总设计师、中国科学院院士杨伟带领试飞团队的深度参与。

“杨伟给我们发了很多空白的座舱图,给了好多电门开关的小图片,让我们自己去体验,把相应的开关贴在自己认为合理的位置上。”李刚说,如果大家都贴在一个位置上,说明意见一致;不一致,就开会讨论。

在李刚的印象中,这样的讨论至少经历了五轮。“最后,所有的座舱布局都是一个协调的结果。”

从试飞团队画出来的一张张图纸,到木头座舱,再到金属座舱……设计师与试飞员一遍遍对接,对细微之处的精益求精,终成中国最具科幻感的战斗机座舱。
Cockpit layout: a cockpit "drawn" by test pilots on the blueprints

Li Gang said that cockpit layout is very important for an aircraft. J-20's cockpit design is described by Li Gang as "[a pilot's] best office", and the key to its success is the in-depth participation of the test flight team under the leadership of Yang Wei --- J-20's chief designer and academician of the China Science Academy.

"Yang Wei sent us a lot of empty cockpit diagrams along with smaller cutouts of electrical switches. He let us to experience for ourselves by putting the pasting the corresponding switch cutout on what we think is a reasonable location." Li Gang added that if everyone pasted [the switch] on the same location, it means that the opinions agree; it not, the pilots will discuss the differences in a meeting.

There were at least five rounds of such meetings under Li Gang's impression. "In the end, every cockpit layout is a result of compromise."

From every blue prints drawn by the test flight team, to the wooden cockpit, then to the metal cockpit... The repeated collaborations between the designer and test pilots, as well as excessive attention lavished on even the most tiny of details, finally resulted in China's most scifi looking fighter jet cockpit.
 

siegecrossbow

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设计理念:敏捷性媲美歼-10,首次采用侧杆操作

作为中国首款隐身战斗机,歼-20不免在机动性能上被与“一代名机”歼-10相较。

李刚说,因其隐身需求,歼-20在气动外形设计上比一般飞机复杂得多。经过设计团队的不懈努力,终使歼-20具备了非常出色的敏捷性和操控性,与歼-10相差无异。

6日在珠海进行的飞行展示上,歼-20三机编队的炫酷机身在蔚蓝色天幕中拉起一道道银白色涡流,赚足现场观众的眼球与眼泪,敏捷度不言而喻。

“歼-20座舱还采用了侧杆操作,这在中国战机历史上也是第一次。”李刚介绍,这一设计理念有三点优势:一是飞行员视野更清晰;二是增强战机敏捷性;三是更有利于战机进行大过载飞行。

当然,作为中国首款隐身战斗机,最受关注的依然是其隐身性能。“隐身性能非常好!”李刚说,作为战斗机,隐身性能对作战使用非常关键。
Design concept: agility matching that of the J-10, first use of side-stick controller

As China's first stealth fighter, the J-20's maneuverability is inevitably compared with that of a "renowned fighter" from the previous generation, the J-10.

Li Gang said that due to the need for stealth, J-20's aerodynamic layout is far more complex than that of convention airplanes. The J-20, due to the unremitting efforts of the design team, is equipped with excellent agility and controllability virtually indistinguishable from those of the J-10.

During the flight display at Zhuhai on the 6th, a formation of three J-20s drew streaks of silvery vapors against the background of a starkly blue sky, earning both attention and tears alike from enraptured audiences; the agility displayed goes without saying.

"J-20's cockpit also employs side control stick, a first in the history of Chinese combat aircraft." Li Gang introduced that there are three advantages to this design: superior field of view for the pilot, enhanced agility for the aircraft, and the design is beneficial for flying under high-g conditions.

Of course, as China's first stealth fighter, J-20's stealth capability is still the one capability that attracts the most external attentions. "[J-20's] stealth capability is very good." Li Gang said. He also stated stealth capability is crucial to the combat applications of a fighter aircraft.
 
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siegecrossbow

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从验证机到装备作战部队:试飞数千架次

“一架飞机装备部队是很不容易的,中间飞了好几千架次。”李刚介绍,从2011年首飞歼-20验证机,到2014年首飞原型机,再到今年年初正式列装作战部队,歼-20历时7年走完了从首飞到技术鉴定再到装备作战部队的完整过程。

自2011年以来,李刚在空军试飞局一直担负歼-20技术型号负责人,带领试飞团队完成歼-20测试工作。

“歼-20的很多新技术,我们国家都是第一次采用。”李刚说,“短短这么几年,完成这么大量的试飞任务,这么快装备部队并形成作战能力,我感到无比自豪和光荣。”
From demonstrator to equipping the combat force: several thousand test flights

"It is very difficult for a plane to enter service since there are several thousand flights in between." Li Gang introduced that from the first flight of the J-20 demonstrator in 2011, to the prototype that first flew in 2014, and then the equipment of combat troops early this year, the J-20 underwent the entire process from maiden flight to technological verification and finally combat deployment within the span of seven years.

Ever since 2011, Li Gang has occupied the role of J-20's principal technical model owner in the Airforce Flight Testing Bureau and led the team to complete the tasks of J-20's experimentations.

"Many of J-20's new technologies are used for the first time by our country." Li Gang said. "I am extremely proud of the fact that we accomplished such a vast quantity of test flight tasks and allowed the J-20 to quickly equip the military and achieve IOC within a few short years."
 

siegecrossbow

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Complete translation.

At the 12th Zhuhai airshow, the stunning debut of three aircraft formation of J-20s with "new paint, new formation, and new appearance" is undoubtedly the greatest "Easter Egg" offered by the airshow.

From the one minute glimpse of its two aircraft formation at the last airshow till the blazing climax of this year's three aircraft formation, J-20 has kept the general audience full of anticipation throughout. On November 7th, PLAAF's "Golden Medal of Honor for Meritorious Pilots" winner and J-20's test pilot on its maiden flight, Li Gang, accepted an interview from Xinhua journalists and provided a detailed account of the behind the scenes stories of J-20's test flights.

The takeoff time of J-20's successful maiden flight: there are exactly eight "ones" by coincidence

January 11th, 2011, China's J-20 stealth fighter successfully flew for the first time in Chengdu. As China's first generation stealth fighter, J-20 not only initiated PLAAF's "Era of 20s", but also announced the arrival of its "Era of Stealth".

Even to this day, Li Gang has difficulties concealing his excitement when recalling that moment seven years ago. "As a test pilot," he said, "it is a tremendous fortune to test fly J-20's demonstrator on its maiden flight."

On 1:11PM, January 11th, 2011, Li Gang took off successfully.

"There are exactly eight 'ones' in the time of takeoff!" Li Gang said. He added that the takeoff time was just a coincidence. The first flight was originally scheduled for the 7th but was delayed till the 11th due to inclement weather in Chengdu.

Although Li Gang technically took off on 13:11 that day, Li Gang --- as a soldier --- prefers to interpret the time of this historic moment as 1:11 in the afternoon because there are exactly eight "ones" coincidentally. "[It makes me] feel proud." said Li Gang.

China's most surreal fighter plane: "information before your eyes, control at your finger tips"

When asked about J-20's piloting experience, Li Gang described it using a (two characters in Chinese) word that left infinite room for imagination: "Surreal!"

J-20's cockpit is not only spacious and neat but is also reasonably configured, making the piloting experience extremely comfortable. Li Gang refers to it as China's most "surreal fighter" by far.

"Everyone who has seen J-20's cockpit will exclaim: so neatly organized, so few electrical switches!" Li Gang said. He also stated that every switch in J-20's cockpit, soft or hard, feels extremely modern.

Li Gang said that one can figure out the purpose of every electrical switch in J-20's cockpit just by glancing at it; during night time flights, one can figure out the purpose of a switch just by touching it -- a very good error-proofing design. "Controlling the plane is like playing games on our phones, and the time from target detection to missile launch is very fast."

One pilot once described the experience of piloting the J-20 as "integrated LCD display and simple electrical switches truly realized the goal of 'information before your eyes, control at your finger tips'".

"Maybe many thing from science fiction are being realized through technology." Li Gang said.

Cockpit layout: a cockpit "drawn" by test pilots on the blueprints

Li Gang said that cockpit layout is very important for an aircraft. J-20's cockpit design is described by Li Gang as "[a pilot's] best office", and the key to its success is the in-depth participation of the test flight team under the leadership of Yang Wei --- J-20's chief designer and academician of the China Science Academy.

"Yang Wei sent us a lot of empty cockpit diagrams along with smaller cutouts of electrical switches. He let us to experience for ourselves by putting the pasting the corresponding switch cutout on what we think is a reasonable location." Li Gang added that if everyone pasted [the switch] on the same location, it means that the opinions agree; it not, the pilots will discuss the differences in a meeting.

There were at least five rounds of such meetings under Li Gang's impression. "In the end, every cockpit layout is a result of compromise."

From every blue prints drawn by the test flight team, to the wooden cockpit, then to the metal cockpit... The repeated collaborations between the designer and test pilots, as well as excessive attention lavished on even the most tiny of details, finally resulted in China's most scifi looking fighter jet cockpit.

Design concept: agility matching that of the J-10, first use of side-stick controller

As China's first stealth fighter, the J-20's maneuverability is inevitably compared with that of a "renowned fighter" from the previous generation, the J-10.

Li Gang said that due to the need for stealth, J-20's aerodynamic layout is far more complex than that of convention airplanes. The J-20, due to the unremitting efforts of the design team, is equipped with excellent agility and controllability virtually indistinguishable from those of the J-10.

During the flight display at Zhuhai on the 6th, a formation of three J-20s drew streaks of silvery vapors against the background of a starkly blue sky, earning both attention and tears alike from enraptured audiences; the agility displayed goes without saying.

"J-20's cockpit also employs a side control stick, a first in the history of Chinese combat aircraft." Li Gang introduced that there are three advantages to this design: superior field of view for the pilot, enhanced agility for the aircraft, and benefits for flying under high-g conditions.

Of course, as China's first stealth fighter, J-20's stealth capability is still the one capability that attracts the most external attentions. "[J-20's] stealth capability is very good." Li Gang said. He also stated stealth capability is crucial to the combat applications of a fighter aircraft.

From demonstrator to equipping the combat force: several thousand test flights

"It is very difficult for a plane to enter service since there are several thousand flights in between." Li Gang introduced that from the first flight of the J-20 demonstrator in 2011, to the prototype that first flew in 2014, and then the equipment of combat troops early this year, the J-20 underwent the entire process from maiden flight to technological verification and finally combat deployment within the span of seven years.

Ever since 2011, Li Gang has occupied the role of J-20's principal technical model owner in the Airforce Flight Testing Bureau and led the team to complete the tasks of J-20's experimentations.

"Many of J-20's new technologies are used for the first time by our country." Li Gang said. "I am extremely proud of the fact that we accomplished such a vast quantity of test flight tasks and allowed the J-20 to quickly equip the military and achieve IOC within a few short years."
 
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