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^^^Also talking about taking off with one engine (now you see the importance of a twin engine carrier plane)
Su-33 cannot take-off from any possible position with one engine under no headwind. At 25 knots, from the longest 195m take-off position 3, it may be possible if:
under 22300kg there will be no dip in take-off profile.
22300-23500kg there will be dip, but plane can pull up naturally before minimum safety height of 20m.
About crew Training:
1. Pilot needs about 50 take-off and landing experience on the carrier to complete the last stage of flight training.
Elementary flight crew training starts under the conditions listed for single engine take-offs (NOT that they take-off with one engine (!), but that they start from take-off position 3 and with 25 knot headwind available)
First 10 flights - TOW within 22300kg, 25 knot headwind, no external weapons load. 3500kg fuel, of which 2500kg can be used to simulate a 55min 800km flight, or one take off, 4 approach towards airspace around the carrier, 4 touch and goes, and one arrested landing.
Above needs to be repeated 10 times before progression to other tasks.
2. Normal operations
All onboard personelle needs to participate in this exercise. Plane needs to have over-capacity to take-off under one engine. various take-off position training with various load weight. But take-off is not allowed under no wind from the first two take-off positions. At 25 knots headwind TOW at position 1,2 is limited to under 28100kg. (Russia navy limits at 28000kg). From 3rd take-off position at 0 knots headwind TOW also limits to below 28000kg. With 25 knots headwind there is no weight limit from position 3.
3. Emergency take-off from position 3 (I suspect this is to rapidly respond to serious air threats)
Only used under wartime situation, when training need approval from flight bridge officer (<-any idea the proper title?). Sill operates under single engine take-off overcapcity assumptions, but relaxes the take-off profile to allow for dip in altitude. Taking off from position 1,2 under 0 knots headwind, TOW is limited to 22700kg, 25 knots, under 30000kg.