(remarwk - I am not expert on this field, this is the informations that I collected to understand why the cost decrease of ICs stopped years ago)
The semiconductor industry using 193nm lasers even for 10nm parts.
The only way to do that is using multiple patterning, it means that the final pattern generated in several step, using interference patters from different masks.
However, the cost composition is a bit deeper, because two third of the semi plants come from cleaning/air filtration, the leftover from actual machines.
Problem is multiple patterning (And many other issue with smaller features) increase dramatically the cost of IC design.
IF a country learning the IC design, and has to make a lot of different type the simplest is to use 90nm technology, that gives the cheapest design for low volume ICs.
There is more to it than that. The industry moved to so called immersion lithography. i.e. the chips are immersed into a liquid during the lithography process which enables etching finer details. It is a bit more complicated to use but it was cheap enough that it basically lead to the demise of the efforts to design lower wavelength light sources for like a decade.
Unfortunately even with immersion lithography you can only go so far. That's why a lot of people claim that 45 nm is the manufacturing node which makes the most sense in the perspective of cost per transistor. To go beyond that you typically need to rely on multiple patterning which reduces the wafer output like you said. Multiple patterning allows you to etch finer details at the cost of more exposure steps. Not only does it cut wafer output but you also need to spend more money on photolithography masks. Which are typically one of the major costs in moving a new chip from design to manufacturability.