New J-10 thread II

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crobato

Colonel
VIP Professional
Feng, do you still have the original Col. Zhang test pilot interview? I can't find my own copy.


Yang Xiang interview, google translated.

February 27, a flight of the "F-10 aircraft project," the State Scientific and Technological Progress Award, special projects. This will show that the F-10 aircraft project for the upgrading of the overall technological level of China's aviation industry to make an important contribution. Therefore, the interview has served as a deputy commander of the F-10 aircraft development projects, deputy director of research and development site, deputy director of flight test site, the project director Yan Xiang.

She started from the demonstration program, to participate in the entire process of developing the F-10 aircraft, To enhance development of a management model has made a major contribution.

Reporter : In your program from the 1984 demonstration, the F-10 aircraft involved in the entire development process. As a leading and important participants in the project, you please tell us about the background of the F-10 aircraft development.

Yanxiang: the 20th century the late 1970s to 16. "Mirage" 2000 represented the third generation of advanced fighters have spread to the West of China's neighboring countries and regions. At that time, as the main equipment for the F-6, F-7, etc. First, second-generation fighters have built up a strong technological edge so that our national security is facing a serious challenge. In this context, China's leader Deng Xiaoping said : "We want fighters, engaging in a new, good performance fighters. "This is the origin of the F-10 project. Although determined to develop new fighter planes, but the specific definition of new fighter planes, We still a relatively long way to go. At that time, thanks to our technical foundation is weak, and whether they have the ability to develop the third-generation fighter was not initially very confident.

In 1984, the first demonstration of new fighter planes, Shenyang, Nanchang and Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute put forward their respective programs. Chengdu, which is more innovative layout ducks. At the initial stage, we can only have a certain layout of the overall aerodynamic research foundation, and in other countries such as engines and avionics. The flight control and other aspects of the research program that was gradually formed. At that time the environment for reform and opening up, the military had hoped that the West will introduce a certain type of third-generation fighter. and the aviation industry has also hope to introduce advanced technologies. Certainly not the other transfer of technology, an astronomical figure out the price far beyond our capacity to bear. makes our country gave up the idea of purchasing fighter planes and technology. From the cancellation of planned purchases promoted to a certain extent, the development of a new type of Chinese-made fighters. Our air relatively low mobility of the middle-duck good layout, And we have our own aviation industry has accumulated a certain technology. In contrast to many programs based on the finalization of new fighter planes used duck layout, and then combined with other factors. Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute and the Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Company selected assume that the F-10 fighter aircraft to develop new work.

Reporter : Some people think the F-10 fighter copy of a foreign duck layout program, how do you think that is?

Yanxiang : This does not conform to the facts. Undeniable, good and we are actively conducting the international cooperation in the external environment of our technical cooperation will be defined at the time the world's first new combat aircraft advanced level preponderance of great help, so we have a higher starting point, our new fighter planes with a big leap in technology. However, the principle is the principle of international cooperation and building design. Mainly concentrated in the area of technical cooperation in key areas of software technology; Major technical advice, design review, The fundamental purpose is to improve the technological level and develop our own capacity. We do not have to spend money to help people to help us run the design, nor did the bulk purchase of hardware. Overall design of the development work are specific to the principal. Through international cooperation, our technical level was noticeably improved, engineering and technical personnel to update the design concepts, and establish a "top-down design. Comprehensive bottom-up "design. So we need to emphasize is that the F-10 aircraft is totally independent intellectual property rights. others just gave us some ideas and methods.

Reporter : J-10 aircraft in the entire development process, or any major repeatedly encountered great difficulties?

Yanxiang : Overall, the development of the F-10 aircraft is still quite smooth. We have jokingly said that the F-10 "luck" very good and no major technical failures and repeated. Especially in the later test flight, crashed off without a prototype. created a new world record of the history of the FBW aircraft flights. This also proves the system is, in fact, we are developing a full digital fax a high level, the quality effective security management. If there repeatedly, is there have been no major changes in engine selection. According to the initial plan, the installation of the F-10 aircraft is 15 turbojet engine. However, because almost 15 turbojet aircraft and the simultaneous development of the F-10, technical risk. To the 20th century, the late 1980s, the relations between China and the Soviet Union became relaxed, and then the disintegration of the Soviet Union. We AL-31 from Russia may become a high-thrust turbofan engine. F-10 aircraft for the development of international cooperation has provided an important opportunity. AL-31 engine of our delegation to travel to Russia in 1990 carried out an inspection. specifically include inspecting the matching engine and the F-10 aircraft. and with the Russians to explore the feasibility of changing the location of engine casing. In 1992, China and Russia signed a final contract to introduce AL-31 engine. Replacement of the engine design changes, the entire F-10 aircraft development progress delayed by about one and a half years. Of course, the specific terms of the development process, or very difficult. F-10 to start the technical foundation of China's aviation industry is very poor, and the F-10 and positioning are very high, very new, the extent that almost all the systems, products, materials, technology upswing have sometimes are not supporting the development of this series. Development of the F-10 is inconceivable. In addition to the flight control, navigation to new development, including power supply systems, hydraulic systems, fuel measurement systems, braking systems, environmental control systems, pilot anti-G suit, oxygen system, emergency power system, such as 60% of the airborne products are brand new. This was once caused a lot of controversy, but finally we have overcome all sorts of difficulties, these have withstood the pressure of success. It is even harder in the manufacturing process, the F-10 aircraft hull life expectancy was about more than double the previous models. used to damage tolerance design, the processing technology has undergone tremendous changes. For example, many large components from the previous riveting process into the overall process and the high demand for materials and equipment. F-10 plane is also used a lot of composite material, which is the overall composite front wings. also a high demand for the technology. In short, by the F-10 aircraft development, making the overall technological level of China's aviation industry has been upgraded. system development and other related industries. Management of the scheme, according to the experience. Before we work on the formulation of a work in the network map and the road map process, the project has made comprehensive planning. A test flight as an example, the preparatory work had already begun in 2007 before the maiden flight. We also set a model, the management system, at the beginning of each year. All the projects have been clear targets and milestones nodes, a very good guiding role in the development of the project. Synergy is key to the project's success. F-10 aircraft in the process of development, cooperation and coordination between the military and we were very good. The military is not just supervisors, as well as participants in the project design. In addition, pilots involved in the design process to staff and so on. We also require a great deal of coordination with the designers of the contradictions between the actual manufacturing capacity, so advanced and achieve the best balance between the technology.

Reporter : Finally, you please give a brief evaluation of the F-10 aircraft, the F-10 and to discuss the future direction of improvement.

Yanxiang : From the beginning of the project, we will catch up with the third-generation fighter in the international development goals set for the F-10. It now appears that this goal has been achieved. The successful development of the F-10 aircraft, successfully completed "generation crew developed to establish a first-class base. created contingent "of the three major tasks. F-10 aircraft will continue to improve, and further improve our overall operational efficiency. to meet the needs of future high-tech wars. In addition, the F-10 aircraft excellent maneuverability, loading capacity and the ability to have short take-off and landing aircraft carrier into the huge potential
 

Deino

Lieutenant General
Staff member
Super Moderator
Feng, do you still have the original Col. Zhang test pilot interview? I can't find my own copy.


Yang Xiang interview, google translated.

...

In 1984, the first demonstration of new fighter planes, Shenyang, Nanchang and Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute put forward their respective programs. Chengdu, which is more innovative layout ducks.

...
Thanks a lot for posting !!!

I never knew that there were several designs also from Shenyang and Nanchang in "competition" ... my thought alsways was that after the final end of the SAC J-13 in 1981 the current J-10 succeded it !

Are there any information about the other condenders ??? ... esp. the one from Nanchang !

Cheers, Deino
 

crobato

Colonel
VIP Professional
Beats me. Its the first time I have heard of the Nanchang proposal. The Shenyang proposal might be the delta you pointed out in the other thread.

Since the Chengdu design was considered the more innovative of the three, I am guessing that the Nanchang proposal also entailed a conventional delta.
 

Deino

Lieutenant General
Staff member
Super Moderator
Beats me. Its the first time I have heard of the Nanchang proposal. The Shenyang proposal might be the delta you pointed out in the other thread.

Since the Chengdu design was considered the more innovative of the three, I am guessing that the Nanchang proposal also entailed a conventional delta.


Ohhhh what interesting times !!! :rofl:

Otherwise the SAC design could also be an improved version of the J-13 - maybe the one rumoured to have a chin intake - as I think that huge delta in the other tread would be a different class of fighter.

Regarding the Nanachng proposal it would very .... very interesting to see that as the last fighter I know from Nanachang was the Q-6 fighter-bomber and I don't think that they proposed a fighter version of that ... or nevertheless, why not ??? ... perhaps not with VG wing !

Maybe this is one of them ?

Cheers, Deino
 

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tphuang

Brigadier
VIP Professional
Registered Member
Feng, do you still have the original Col. Zhang test pilot interview? I can't find my own copy.


Yang Xiang interview, google translated.

February 27, a flight of the "F-10 aircraft project," the State Scientific and Technological Progress Award, special projects. This will show that the F-10 aircraft project for the upgrading of the overall technological level of China's aviation industry to make an important contribution. Therefore, the interview has served as a deputy commander of the F-10 aircraft development projects, deputy director of research and development site, deputy director of flight test site, the project director Yan Xiang.

She started from the demonstration program, to participate in the entire process of developing the F-10 aircraft, To enhance development of a management model has made a major contribution.

Reporter : In your program from the 1984 demonstration, the F-10 aircraft involved in the entire development process. As a leading and important participants in the project, you please tell us about the background of the F-10 aircraft development.

Yanxiang: the 20th century the late 1970s to 16. "Mirage" 2000 represented the third generation of advanced fighters have spread to the West of China's neighboring countries and regions. At that time, as the main equipment for the F-6, F-7, etc. First, second-generation fighters have built up a strong technological edge so that our national security is facing a serious challenge. In this context, China's leader Deng Xiaoping said : "We want fighters, engaging in a new, good performance fighters. "This is the origin of the F-10 project. Although determined to develop new fighter planes, but the specific definition of new fighter planes, We still a relatively long way to go. At that time, thanks to our technical foundation is weak, and whether they have the ability to develop the third-generation fighter was not initially very confident.

In 1984, the first demonstration of new fighter planes, Shenyang, Nanchang and Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute put forward their respective programs. Chengdu, which is more innovative layout ducks. At the initial stage, we can only have a certain layout of the overall aerodynamic research foundation, and in other countries such as engines and avionics. The flight control and other aspects of the research program that was gradually formed. At that time the environment for reform and opening up, the military had hoped that the West will introduce a certain type of third-generation fighter. and the aviation industry has also hope to introduce advanced technologies. Certainly not the other transfer of technology, an astronomical figure out the price far beyond our capacity to bear. makes our country gave up the idea of purchasing fighter planes and technology. From the cancellation of planned purchases promoted to a certain extent, the development of a new type of Chinese-made fighters. Our air relatively low mobility of the middle-duck good layout, And we have our own aviation industry has accumulated a certain technology. In contrast to many programs based on the finalization of new fighter planes used duck layout, and then combined with other factors. Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute and the Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Company selected assume that the F-10 fighter aircraft to develop new work.

Reporter : Some people think the F-10 fighter copy of a foreign duck layout program, how do you think that is?

Yanxiang : This does not conform to the facts. Undeniable, good and we are actively conducting the international cooperation in the external environment of our technical cooperation will be defined at the time the world's first new combat aircraft advanced level preponderance of great help, so we have a higher starting point, our new fighter planes with a big leap in technology. However, the principle is the principle of international cooperation and building design. Mainly concentrated in the area of technical cooperation in key areas of software technology; Major technical advice, design review, The fundamental purpose is to improve the technological level and develop our own capacity. We do not have to spend money to help people to help us run the design, nor did the bulk purchase of hardware. Overall design of the development work are specific to the principal. Through international cooperation, our technical level was noticeably improved, engineering and technical personnel to update the design concepts, and establish a "top-down design. Comprehensive bottom-up "design. So we need to emphasize is that the F-10 aircraft is totally independent intellectual property rights. others just gave us some ideas and methods.

Reporter : J-10 aircraft in the entire development process, or any major repeatedly encountered great difficulties?

Yanxiang : Overall, the development of the F-10 aircraft is still quite smooth. We have jokingly said that the F-10 "luck" very good and no major technical failures and repeated. Especially in the later test flight, crashed off without a prototype. created a new world record of the history of the FBW aircraft flights. This also proves the system is, in fact, we are developing a full digital fax a high level, the quality effective security management. If there repeatedly, is there have been no major changes in engine selection. According to the initial plan, the installation of the F-10 aircraft is 15 turbojet engine. However, because almost 15 turbojet aircraft and the simultaneous development of the F-10, technical risk. To the 20th century, the late 1980s, the relations between China and the Soviet Union became relaxed, and then the disintegration of the Soviet Union. We AL-31 from Russia may become a high-thrust turbofan engine. F-10 aircraft for the development of international cooperation has provided an important opportunity. AL-31 engine of our delegation to travel to Russia in 1990 carried out an inspection. specifically include inspecting the matching engine and the F-10 aircraft. and with the Russians to explore the feasibility of changing the location of engine casing. In 1992, China and Russia signed a final contract to introduce AL-31 engine. Replacement of the engine design changes, the entire F-10 aircraft development progress delayed by about one and a half years. Of course, the specific terms of the development process, or very difficult. F-10 to start the technical foundation of China's aviation industry is very poor, and the F-10 and positioning are very high, very new, the extent that almost all the systems, products, materials, technology upswing have sometimes are not supporting the development of this series. Development of the F-10 is inconceivable. In addition to the flight control, navigation to new development, including power supply systems, hydraulic systems, fuel measurement systems, braking systems, environmental control systems, pilot anti-G suit, oxygen system, emergency power system, such as 60% of the airborne products are brand new. This was once caused a lot of controversy, but finally we have overcome all sorts of difficulties, these have withstood the pressure of success. It is even harder in the manufacturing process, the F-10 aircraft hull life expectancy was about more than double the previous models. used to damage tolerance design, the processing technology has undergone tremendous changes. For example, many large components from the previous riveting process into the overall process and the high demand for materials and equipment. F-10 plane is also used a lot of composite material, which is the overall composite front wings. also a high demand for the technology. In short, by the F-10 aircraft development, making the overall technological level of China's aviation industry has been upgraded. system development and other related industries. Management of the scheme, according to the experience. Before we work on the formulation of a work in the network map and the road map process, the project has made comprehensive planning. A test flight as an example, the preparatory work had already begun in 2007 before the maiden flight. We also set a model, the management system, at the beginning of each year. All the projects have been clear targets and milestones nodes, a very good guiding role in the development of the project. Synergy is key to the project's success. F-10 aircraft in the process of development, cooperation and coordination between the military and we were very good. The military is not just supervisors, as well as participants in the project design. In addition, pilots involved in the design process to staff and so on. We also require a great deal of coordination with the designers of the contradictions between the actual manufacturing capacity, so advanced and achieve the best balance between the technology.

Reporter : Finally, you please give a brief evaluation of the F-10 aircraft, the F-10 and to discuss the future direction of improvement.

Yanxiang : From the beginning of the project, we will catch up with the third-generation fighter in the international development goals set for the F-10. It now appears that this goal has been achieved. The successful development of the F-10 aircraft, successfully completed "generation crew developed to establish a first-class base. created contingent "of the three major tasks. F-10 aircraft will continue to improve, and further improve our overall operational efficiency. to meet the needs of future high-tech wars. In addition, the F-10 aircraft excellent maneuverability, loading capacity and the ability to have short take-off and landing aircraft carrier into the huge potential
sorry, do you remember what months it first came out at? I only downloaded the photos for the Ordinance & knowledge article + the one interviewing test pilot Lei Qiang.
 

crobato

Colonel
VIP Professional
I think it came out either in January or February.

do you still have the text of the Lei Qiang interview? That's the article mentioning about the prototypes with the WS-10 engine and the low spool/acceleration times for the engine.

Here is another article discussing the J-10's aerodynamics.

Please, Log in or Register to view URLs content!


Googled translated.

Knowledge of aviation -- configuration :

F-10 features and performance analysis fighting

March 21, 2007 : 07 A 30 F-10 fighters used by the aviation knowledge canard configuration. This is the first time that China successfully developed a Chinese fighter. The family of fighters in the world, some of the more advanced fighters used a similar layout, Sweden's Saab a 37 "Thunder", the JAS 39, the French "Mirage" III NG, "Mirage" 4000. "Gust of Wind," and Israel's "young lion" C2 "lion" Russia's MiG 1.44 EF2000 development of the cooperation between the four countries in Western Europe and "Typhoon." With the in-depth development of aviation technology, a new program emerging duck fighters, and among the ranks of advanced fighters.

Well, what the fighters duck layout features its aerodynamic characteristics and how?

After the end-use of high speed and low speed, and no good end of the general layout of the high-speed aircraft pneumatic Due to various reasons, its slow performance is often ineffective. And duck layout of the fighters were able to meet the high velocity. Performance requirements. This layout will be good for high-speed aircraft to take care of the slender body shape and aircraft landings on the short-range or high-level allocation coefficient. This is because : on the one hand, slender ducks layout in the transition from subsonic to supersonic. The focus of the movement of the end-to stability after more than a small increment, which is beneficial for high speed flight. Other hand, in high angle of attack, or approaching flight, it can produce the end-and no later than the end of a much higher trim lift aircraft. This shows that it is also suitable for low-speed flight. Balancing lift plans high-end after the first set began, and duck-tailed aircraft longitudinal trim the way maps. Unsteady flying level and in the air do, and lift its gravity, thrust and resistance is equal, the whole plane is balanced torque. Offered peace force F-10A for a duck with the early F-layout program in China although there were a concept embodied 9, But the many technical problems involved in the F-1 tester access is the ultimate solution Liu Ying caption perfect pitch. Tail-end and after the aircraft without the need to pay a certain price for the lift. During the flight, the lift-wing aircraft or torque Mzo Y and the entire focus of the aircraft to generate a bow torque. To balance this moment, there should be no partial aircraft movements tail fins, tail after the aircraft to tilt on the elevator. Lift to trim to produce a negative result dropped the whole plane lift. Of course, when the level of attack is not the end of the load, it is a small price to pay to the lift. However, when the aircraft to fly at high angles of attack, and to take measures to increase or (up wing) on the situation worsened. Would have risen greatly because of the additional torque bow. To trim those additional torque, the horizontal tail edge too great to be on the point, it will have risen remarkably dropped arrived. If a wing or a high-growth approach. Balancing the sometimes very difficult, but bear in the horizontal tail lift height of the measures taken.

This is no shortage of examples. The F-4 aircraft in the United States after taking an edge flap boundary layer control technology, bow torque increase substantially. The results they have already allocated nearly stall in the tail, but the end of the peace process, upswept front. The airfoil-bending will become. Japan's PS-1 seaplane was on the tail surfaces to increase the negative inflatable lift. After the end layout like this, no tail-plane balancing the rising power is even more difficult. In contrast, duck-tailed and no later than the end of the layout-layout advantage : Pitching torque from its rise before the aircraft is the focus of UAVs (canard). This is really killing two birds with one stone : it provides a balancing torque, increased lift.

Then why do people seldom used before duck layout?

This is because the ducks conventional aircraft has three drawbacks : (1) There is a strong wing to wing before the next wash, lower wing lift. Despite the lifting of the front wings that are partly offset the loss of lift, but not necessarily lift the total allocation usually much higher than the after-tail.

(2) Hollywood-style layout not solve problems of distribution. Under normal circumstances. Canard load than the tail, the tail often as 3-4 times. Because if canard put in front plane followed focus forward and center forward adjustments are required. This canard from the center of gravity of the past, Arm short, it's balancing capability is limited. In addition to the main wings on the front wings are washing, in the first easy-wing stall angle of attack before. This landing and take-off maneuver at high angles of attack is negative. Swede end of the last century until the 1960s, successfully developed a 37 Saab aircraft, These shortcomings will be overcome to a certain extent. As M-2 level for the aircraft, Saab 37 not use a complex risen measures to enable the taking off and landing on short distances N400 m, meet the requirements in a short distance and landings. This success has attracted widespread international attention. Saab is one of 37 adopted a close-coupled canard layout, the use of the favorable after-wing detached vortex interference between a rising power.

(3) The vortex from the surface of the main wing formation, development, and the breakdown of the aircraft lift and horizontal drift of the torque characteristics of a great impact makes nonlinear longitudinal torque curve is very serious, and lead to a deterioration of aircraft steering stability. In order to solve this problem, the conventional canard airplane had increased the stability of the aircraft, to seek more straight vertical torque curve. As a result, the aircraft's increased resistance to trim, trim capacity of the front wings, aircraft taking off and landing of the maneuverability and performance deterioration. One of the solutions is the use of fly-by-wire system, relaxed static stability.
 

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wlchang

New Member
  • Thread Starter Thread Starter
  • #37
If your point is that the two planes should be at different angles from the camera, keep in mind the effect of a telephoto lens. It's natural to imagine the camera as being something similar to our own eyes, so an object that fills the frame should be relatively close. But with a telephoto lens the camera is actually very far away from the subject, and this makes the difference in angles much less.

This is what people mean when they say a telephoto lens "flattens" an image.

... Ami.

Yes, the telephoto lens "flattens" an image and it does this by bringing the objects in the distance, into focus (or into the depth of field), but it won't remove the parallax effect simply because the image is only "flattened" virtually and is still based on real 3-dimensional objects in the distance.

On your other point, the difference in the angles of the shot would still be noticeable in its effect under practical circumstances. It would be very tricky getting the 2 planes into the field of view in higher magnification, not to mention to handle the vibration which would require a tripod stand in the cockpit of the third plane taking the shot. What's more, why go through such far distances and its associated inconvenience, if you can go nearer and get a much better quality shot, and do it with that much better ease? (Furthermore, I believe there will be a noticeable difference, visually, even at a distance.)

I'll probably post my other explanations in a few days time.
 

crobato

Colonel
VIP Professional
Lol. I told you that the images are still not the same. There are differences in the angle of the slats as well as in other details of the planes. You're the only person imagining one is a copy of the other, when everyone else is saying not.

Yes, you can do it with a telephoto, not with an extreme telephoto but a near telephoto (70mm to 150mm) with fast shutter speed. The grain in the image does clearly indicate high ISO meaning a fast film and that does not need a tripod to get sharp images with a telephoto. Otherwise it can be a digital camera or video camera with a mode emulating a fast ISO.
 

tphuang

Brigadier
VIP Professional
Registered Member
I think it came out either in January or February.

do you still have the text of the Lei Qiang interview? That's the article mentioning about the prototypes with the WS-10 engine and the low spool/acceleration times for the engine.

Here is another article discussing the J-10's aerodynamics.

Please, Log in or Register to view URLs content!


Googled translated.

Knowledge of aviation -- configuration :

F-10 features and performance analysis fighting

March 21, 2007 : 07 A 30 F-10 fighters used by the aviation knowledge canard configuration. This is the first time that China successfully developed a Chinese fighter. The family of fighters in the world, some of the more advanced fighters used a similar layout, Sweden's Saab a 37 "Thunder", the JAS 39, the French "Mirage" III NG, "Mirage" 4000. "Gust of Wind," and Israel's "young lion" C2 "lion" Russia's MiG 1.44 EF2000 development of the cooperation between the four countries in Western Europe and "Typhoon." With the in-depth development of aviation technology, a new program emerging duck fighters, and among the ranks of advanced fighters.

Well, what the fighters duck layout features its aerodynamic characteristics and how?

After the end-use of high speed and low speed, and no good end of the general layout of the high-speed aircraft pneumatic Due to various reasons, its slow performance is often ineffective. And duck layout of the fighters were able to meet the high velocity. Performance requirements. This layout will be good for high-speed aircraft to take care of the slender body shape and aircraft landings on the short-range or high-level allocation coefficient. This is because : on the one hand, slender ducks layout in the transition from subsonic to supersonic. The focus of the movement of the end-to stability after more than a small increment, which is beneficial for high speed flight. Other hand, in high angle of attack, or approaching flight, it can produce the end-and no later than the end of a much higher trim lift aircraft. This shows that it is also suitable for low-speed flight. Balancing lift plans high-end after the first set began, and duck-tailed aircraft longitudinal trim the way maps. Unsteady flying level and in the air do, and lift its gravity, thrust and resistance is equal, the whole plane is balanced torque. Offered peace force F-10A for a duck with the early F-layout program in China although there were a concept embodied 9, But the many technical problems involved in the F-1 tester access is the ultimate solution Liu Ying caption perfect pitch. Tail-end and after the aircraft without the need to pay a certain price for the lift. During the flight, the lift-wing aircraft or torque Mzo Y and the entire focus of the aircraft to generate a bow torque. To balance this moment, there should be no partial aircraft movements tail fins, tail after the aircraft to tilt on the elevator. Lift to trim to produce a negative result dropped the whole plane lift. Of course, when the level of attack is not the end of the load, it is a small price to pay to the lift. However, when the aircraft to fly at high angles of attack, and to take measures to increase or (up wing) on the situation worsened. Would have risen greatly because of the additional torque bow. To trim those additional torque, the horizontal tail edge too great to be on the point, it will have risen remarkably dropped arrived. If a wing or a high-growth approach. Balancing the sometimes very difficult, but bear in the horizontal tail lift height of the measures taken.

This is no shortage of examples. The F-4 aircraft in the United States after taking an edge flap boundary layer control technology, bow torque increase substantially. The results they have already allocated nearly stall in the tail, but the end of the peace process, upswept front. The airfoil-bending will become. Japan's PS-1 seaplane was on the tail surfaces to increase the negative inflatable lift. After the end layout like this, no tail-plane balancing the rising power is even more difficult. In contrast, duck-tailed and no later than the end of the layout-layout advantage : Pitching torque from its rise before the aircraft is the focus of UAVs (canard). This is really killing two birds with one stone : it provides a balancing torque, increased lift.

Then why do people seldom used before duck layout?

This is because the ducks conventional aircraft has three drawbacks : (1) There is a strong wing to wing before the next wash, lower wing lift. Despite the lifting of the front wings that are partly offset the loss of lift, but not necessarily lift the total allocation usually much higher than the after-tail.

(2) Hollywood-style layout not solve problems of distribution. Under normal circumstances. Canard load than the tail, the tail often as 3-4 times. Because if canard put in front plane followed focus forward and center forward adjustments are required. This canard from the center of gravity of the past, Arm short, it's balancing capability is limited. In addition to the main wings on the front wings are washing, in the first easy-wing stall angle of attack before. This landing and take-off maneuver at high angles of attack is negative. Swede end of the last century until the 1960s, successfully developed a 37 Saab aircraft, These shortcomings will be overcome to a certain extent. As M-2 level for the aircraft, Saab 37 not use a complex risen measures to enable the taking off and landing on short distances N400 m, meet the requirements in a short distance and landings. This success has attracted widespread international attention. Saab is one of 37 adopted a close-coupled canard layout, the use of the favorable after-wing detached vortex interference between a rising power.

(3) The vortex from the surface of the main wing formation, development, and the breakdown of the aircraft lift and horizontal drift of the torque characteristics of a great impact makes nonlinear longitudinal torque curve is very serious, and lead to a deterioration of aircraft steering stability. In order to solve this problem, the conventional canard airplane had increased the stability of the aircraft, to seek more straight vertical torque curve. As a result, the aircraft's increased resistance to trim, trim capacity of the front wings, aircraft taking off and landing of the maneuverability and performance deterioration. One of the solutions is the use of fly-by-wire system, relaxed static stability.
I just have the pictures for that article. I guess you are looking to get it translated? So, that might not be useful
 

wlchang

New Member
  • Thread Starter Thread Starter
  • #40
Okay, here are the arguments/explanations.

First of all, let me make it clear that, of all the pics I have seen, I've only pointed out that two are photoshopped. (There are, actually, a few that I am not sure of.) And by photoshopped, I meant the pictures themselves, not the individual images in the pictures which may come from original photos.

In my previous posts I mentioned the angle of view. By that, I mean the viewing angles of objects, in relation to an observer, and not the angle of view as in photography. I wanted to express the idea of how the views of the objects would change when the angle changes. If we really want to go that far, this could be explained by the parallax effects. I can't think of other words/ways to express the idea.


Let us take a look at the first picture which is from an original photo (or at least shows that it's so) and of a lesser resolution than the 2nd picture. The following visual clues, based on the 2 planes, are what a genuine photo should show as a result of parallax effects, focussing and perspective. These points should be compared with the PSed one (second picture).

1. The back edge of the wing for the higher plane slightly covers part of the star-symbol whereas the lower plane has the star-symbol a distance away from the wing. (i.e. different parallax effects because of the different positions of the planes in relation to the observer. Or, in common terms,different views because of different viewing angles.) Other places to observe would be the cockpit's canopy or the distance between the canard and the wing, where you can see obvious differences.

2. There is a noticeable change in focus on the upper plane due to its farther distance.

3. There are noticeable differences in their sizes.


Compare this to that of the second picture, no such effects are noticeable!
The following points show an absence of parallax effects, and matters to do with focussing and perspective - signs that the picture is photoshopped.


1. Both the star-symbol are slightly covered by the right wing with no noticeable differences between them. This is in spite of the fact that the camera shot was obviously taken below both the planes and one plane is higher and in front of the other. (Another convenient place to judge parallax effect,in this case, would be the point where the back edge of the right wing touches the tail-fin, visually. There's no noticeable difference in parallax effects for both cases.)

2. The 2 plane images are both in focus. (Which is not right because the shot was obviously taken below both the planes and one plane is higher and in front of the other. By right, the farther plane should have a noticeable change in focus since the nearer plane is already in focus.)

3. There isn't any noticeable (or measured) differences in their sizes! (This is in spite of their positions)


In addition, there are many visual evidences like, for example, the 2 images fit like a jig-saw puzzle - the outline as well as the general look of it. I have also explained some of the other points in my previous posts.


Basically, the above points can be applied to the magazine cover picture as well, which is actually a more obvious example; and provides more additional clues too .

I'll post my comments about the magazine cover shortly.
 

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