# Constraint on the matter–antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations

@article{AbeAkutsuAliAltAndreopoulosAnthonyAntonovaA20, title={Constraint on the matter–antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations}, author={K. R. A. C. C. L. M. S. A. T. Y. Y. E. T. Y. S. M. G. Abe Akutsu Ali Alt Andreopoulos Anthony Antonova A and K. Abe and Risa Akutsu and A. M. Ali and C. Alt and C. Andreopoulos and L. Anthony and M. G. Antonova and Shigeki Aoki and Akitaka Ariga and T. Arihara and Y. Asada and Y. Ashida and E. T. Atkin and Y. Awataguchi and Sei Ban and Mauricio Barbi and Gareth J. Barker and Giles David Barr and D. Barrow and Christopher Barry and M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak and A. Beloshapkin and Francis Bench and Vincenzo Berardi and Sophie Berkman and Lukas Berns and Sampa Bhadra and S. Bienstock and Alain Blondel and Sara Bolognesi and B. Bourguille and S. B. Boyd and D. Brailsford and Alessandro Bravar and David Bravo Bergu{\~n}o and Christopher Bronner and Arkadiusz Bubak and Margherita Buizza Avanzini and J. Calcutt and Thomas B. Campbell and S. V. Cao and Susan Cartwright and M. G. Catanesi and Anselmo Cervera and Andrew Chappell and C. Checchia and Daniel Cherdack and Naruhiro Chikuma and Magda Cicerchia and Georgios Christodoulou and J. P. Coleman and G. Collazuol and L. Cook and David Coplowe and A. Cudd and Anna Maria Dabrowska and Gianfranca De Rosa and T. Dealtry and P. F. Denner and Steve Dennis and Chris Densham and F. Di Lodovico and Neha Dokania and Stephen Dolan and Thomas A. Doyle and O. Drapier and Jacques Dumarchez and Patrick Dunne and A. Eguchi and Lars Eklund and S. Emery-Schrenk and Antonio Ereditato and Pablo Fern{\'a}ndez and Tom Feusels and Alexander Finch and Giovanni Fiorentini and G Fiorillo and C. Francois and Megan Friend and Yoshiaki Fujii and Ryo Fujita and David H. Fukuda and R. Fukuda and Yoshiyuki Fukuda and K. Fusshoeller and K. Gameil and Claudio Giganti and Tomasz Golan and Michel Gonin and A. M. Gorin and M. Guigue and David Hadley and Jennifer Haigh and Philip Hamacher-Baumann and Mark Patrick Hartz and Takehisa Hasegawa and S. Hassani and Nicholas C. Hastings and Tatsuya Hayashino and Yoshinari Hayato and A. Hiramoto and Matthew Ernest Hogan and Jacek Holeczek and Nguyen Thi Hong Van and F. Iacob and Atsuko Kondo Ichikawa and Motoyasu Ikeda and Taku Ishida and Takehiko Ishii and Masaki Ishitsuka and K. Iwamoto and Alexander Izmaylov and Mahesh Jakkapu and Blair Jamieson and Stephen J. Jenkins and C. Jes{\'u}s-Valls and M. Jiang and S. Johnson and Patrik Jonsson and Chang Kee Jung and Xiao Junjie and P. B. Jurj and M. Kabirnezhad and Asher Kaboth and Takaaki Kajita and Hidekazu Kakuno and Jun Kameda and Douglas L. Karlen and Siva Prasad Kasetti and Y. Kataoka and Teppei Katori and Yasuhiro Kato and Edward Kearns and Marat Khabibullin and Alexey N. Khotjantsev and Tatsuya Kikawa and Hitoshi Dr. Kikutani and H. Kim and J. Y. Kim and S. King and John B. Kisiel and A. Knight and A. Knox and T. Kobayashi and Lukas Koch and Taichiro Koga and Akira Konaka and Laura Lee Kormos and Yusuke Koshio and Alexander Kostin and Katarzyna Kowalik and H. Kubo and Yury G. Kudenko and Naoe Kukita and S. Kuribayashi and Robert Kurjata and Thomas Kutter and M. Kuze and Luis Labarga and Justyna Lagoda and M. Lamoureux and Marco Laveder and M. Lawe and M. Licciardi and Thomas Lindner and R. Phillip Litchfield and Shang Lun Liu and X. Li and A. Longhin and Lucio Ludovici and X. Lu and T. Lux and Lucas Nascimento Machado and Lorenzo Magaletti and Kendall Brianna McConnel Mahn and Magdalena Malek and Steven L. Manly and Luc Maret and Alysia Marino and Lluis Marti-Magro and J. F. Martin and Toshiaki Maruyama and Takahiko Matsubara and Kohei Matsushita and Viktor Matveev and K. Mavrokoridis and Eddy Mazzucato and M. McCarthy and Neil McCauley and J. M. McElwee and K. S. Mcfarland and C. Mcgrew and A. Mefodiev and C. J. Metelko and Mauro Mezzetto and Akihiro Minamino and O. V. Mineev and Shun'ichi Mine and Makoto Miura and Laura Molina Bueno and S. Moriyama and J. Morrison and Th. A. Mueller and Ligia Munteanu and Sebastien Murphy and Yoshikazu Nagai and Takeshi Nakadaira and Masayuki Nakahata and Yasuyuki Nakajima and Atsushi Nakamura and K. G. Nakamura and K. G. Nakamura and Shoei Nakayama and Tsuyoshi Nakaya and Kazuo Nakayoshi and Corina Nantais and C. E. R. Naseby and Trần Văn Ngọc and Kajetan Niewczas and Koichiro Nishikawa and Yuri Nishimura and Etam Noah and Tobias Nonnenmacher and F. Nova and Pau Novella and J. A. Nowak and John Columba Nugent and Helen O'Keeffe and L. O’Sullivan and Takahiro Odagawa and Kimihiro Okumura and Toru Okusawa and Sean M. Oser and R. A. Owen and Yuichi Oyama and Vittorio Palladino and Jos{\'e} Luis Valverde Palomino and Vittorio Paolone and M. Pari and William Chesluk Parker and Saba Parsa and Jaroslaw Pasternak and P. Paudyal and Matej Pavin and D. J. B. Payne and G. C. Penn and Luke Pickering and Celeste Pidcott and Gabriele Pintaudi and E. S. Pinzon Guerra and C. Pistillo and Boris A. Popov and Kamil Porwit and Magdalena Posiadała-Zezula and Adrian Pritchard and Benjamin Quilain and T. Radermacher and Emilio Radicioni and Balint Radics and Peter Ratoff and Erez Reinherz-Aronis and C. Riccio and Ewa Rondio and Stefan Roth and Andr{\'e} Rubbia and Alan Cosimo Ruggeri and C. A. Ruggles and A. Rychter and Ken Sakashita and Fjm Sanchez and G. Santucci and Caspar Schloesser and Kate Scholberg and Jackie Schwehr and Mark Scott and Y. Seiya and T. Sekiguchi and Hiroyuki Sekiya and Davide Sgalaberna and R. Shah and A. T. Shaikhiev and F. Shaker and A. A. Shaykina and Masato Shiozawa and William I. Shorrock and Alex A. Shvartsman and Alexei Yu. Smirnov and Michael Burghard Smy and Jan T. Sobczyk and Henry W. Sobel and F. J. P. Soler and Y. Sonoda and Jochen Steinmann and Sergey Suvorov and Akira Suzuki and S. Y. Suzuki and Yu Suzuki and Artur Sztuc and Masahiro Tada and M. Tajima and Atsushi Takeda and Yuji Takeuchi and H. K. M. Tanaka and H. A. Tanaka and S. Tanaka and Lee F. Thompson and W. H. Toki and C. Touramanis and T. Towstego and Ka Ming Tsui and Toshifumi Tsukamoto and Martin Tzanov and Yoshi Uchida and Wataru Uno and Mark Robert Vagins and S. Valder and Z. Vallari and D. Vargas and Georges Vasseur and Cristovao Vilela and William G. S. Vinning and Tomislav Vladisavljevic and V. V. Volkov and Tomasz Wachala and J. Walker and Joseph G. Walsh and Y. Wang and David Lee Wark and Morgan O'hagan Wascko and Andreas Weber and R. A. Wendell and Michael Wilking and Callum Wilkinson and J. Richard Wilson and R J Wilson and Kevin Wood and C. Wret and Y. Yamada and K. Yamamoto and Chiaki Yanagisawa and G. Yang and Takatomi Yano and Kenji Yasutome and Stanley Yen and Nikolay Yershov and Masashi Yokoyama and T. Yoshida and M. Yu and Agnieszka Zalewska and Joanna Zalipska and Krzysztof Zaremba and George Zarnecki and Marek Ziembicki and Eric D. Zimmerman and Marco Zito and Stephane Zsoldos and A. Zykova}, journal={Nature}, year={2020}, volume={580}, pages={339 - 344} }

The charge-conjugation and parity-reversal (CP) symmetry of fundamental particles is a symmetry between matter and antimatter. Violation of this CP symmetry was first observed in 19641, and CP violation in the weak interactions of quarks was soon established2. Sakharov proposed3 that CP violation is necessary to explain the observed imbalance of matter and antimatter abundance in the Universe. However, CP violation in quarks is too small to support this explanation. So far, CP violation has not… Expand

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