There is more to it than that. The industry moved to so called immersion lithography. i.e. the chips are immersed into a liquid during the lithography process which enables etching finer details. It is a bit more complicated to use but it was cheap enough that it basically lead to the demise of the efforts to design lower wavelength light sources for like a decade. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immersion_lithography Unfortunately even with immersion lithography you can only go so far. That's why a lot of people claim that 45 nm is the manufacturing node which makes the most sense in the perspective of cost per transistor. To go beyond that you typically need to rely on multiple patterning which reduces the wafer output like you said. Multiple patterning allows you to etch finer details at the cost of more exposure steps. Not only does it cut wafer output but you also need to spend more money on photolithography masks. Which are typically one of the major costs in moving a new chip from design to manufacturability.