Song and Liao.

Discussion in 'Military History' started by Liberator, Aug 29, 2005.

  1. Liberator
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    Liberator New Member

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    Any 1 know the exact history of Song and Liao??

    China Song dynasty under attack by Liao which lives in Northern China... How did the long years war end??? Whose Yang warriors died and survived. Or u dunno about Song and Liao...
     
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  2. FriedRiceNSpice
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    FriedRiceNSpice Senior Member

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    I thought the dynasty to the north of the Song was the Jin...
     
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  3. Dongfeng
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    Dongfeng Junior Member

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    The Liao Dynasty was not the first Non-Chinese dynasty on north China's soil. During the time of south-north division, many Non-Chinese tribes had ruled over Chinese peasants, and many high officials of the glorious Tang Dynasty were of Turk origin. Probably being offsprings of the 5th century Xianbei people, the Khitan (chin. Qidan) people founded an empire in 907 with the chieftain Yelü Abaoji as emperor of Liao. Their military strategy was no longer simple raids on the peasant villages of northern China, but a conquest war with an armoured cavalry.

    In 946 they took Kaifeng (Bian) ,the capital of the Song Dynasty and kept on to attack the weak troops of the civil-oriented Song government. Tired of the ceaseless skirmishes with the nomad people, the Song government proposed a peace treaty in 1005 that promised quiet frontiers to the Chinese government. But they had to pay huge tributs ("peace presents") to the nomadic rulers of the north to ensure a stable relationship at the frontiers.

    These high costs turned out to be beneficial in the long run. Because the Liao rulers felt quite comfortable with the luxury granted to them by the Chinese, the "wild" steppe people quickly felt comfortable with the Chinese life style, they appreciated the advanced administration system and engaged in agrarian and manufacturial production.

    The Liao-Khitan became Chinese, and with this modification of economical and social attitudes, they lost their spirit of war. Already in the 10th century, they had developed an own script, modeled after the Chinese script, that was in fact not very suitable for an agglutinating language like that of the Khitan.
     
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  4. Dongfeng
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    Dongfeng Junior Member

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    In 1120, the Song government established an alliance with the Jin empire in Manchuria (northeast China) to attack the Liao empire. The Liao government, weakened by economical desasters and internal quarrels, fell victim to the Jin assaults and draw back to the west where they established a new kingdom called Western Liao (Xiliao, or Karakitan in Turkish - "Black Khitan"). They brought Chinese customs with them, and the high amount of Nestorian believers among them was the origin of the tale of the king-priest John in Inner Asia. In 1218, the Mongols conquered the kingdom of Western Liao.
     
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  5. T-U-P
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    T-U-P The Punisher
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    if i remember correctly, the Liaos were the first enemies of Song, then there's the Jin rose and started attacking the Liaos and the Liaos ran west. then the Jins started to attack the Song. After Yue Fei's death, the Jins took a lot of land away from the Song and created their little empire. However the Mongols rose and destoried a majority of the Jins and the whole Liao empire then marched into the Song's capital.

    note: the Jins later became the Qing and created the Qing dynasty.
     
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    Last edited: Aug 29, 2005
  6. FriedRiceNSpice
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    FriedRiceNSpice Senior Member

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    True. They were both Manchu in orgin.
     
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  7. Liberator
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    Liberator New Member

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    Thats in the Southern Song dynasty.

    We are talking about the Northern Song dynasty.
     
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  8. Dongfeng
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    Dongfeng Junior Member

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    As well as Liao, there was also Xixiao (or Western Xia) who attacked Song dynasty.

    An further tribe founding a dynasty after Chinese pattern were the Tanguts (Chinese: Dangxiang), relatives to the Tibetians, who founded a Western Xia Dynasty (Xixia) in 1038. This people was controlling the routes to Inner Asia and demanding high tributes from the Song emperors, after the Song had to sign a peacy treaty with them in 1044.

    The Tangut people of the Western Xia kingdom did not adopt Chinese customs and habits as quick as the Liao-Khitan ruling class had done; the main part of their ruling class remained to be nomads. But they adopted an own script, modeled after the Chinese script, because the Indian or Tibetian alphabet proved not to be suitable for their languge. The Xixia empire was conquered by the Mongols in 1227.

    The name of the Xia Empire still lives in the modern self-governing Muslim region of Ningxia.
     
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  9. FriedRiceNSpice
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    FriedRiceNSpice Senior Member

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    It is then a blessing that the Mongols conquered all the Chinese kingdoms. Otherwise, China today could be like Europe, with 4 or 5 different nations instead of one. Then again, competetion among multiple dynasties would fuel innovations and improvement.
     
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  10. MIGleader
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    MIGleader Banned Idiot

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    europe is trying to become one nations, but it will take time.
     
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