PLAN Type 052 Destroyer Historical Analysis

Discussion in 'Navy' started by Jeff Head, Aug 9, 2016.

  1. Jeff Head
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    Jeff Head General
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    PLAN TYPE 052 DDG HISTORY & ANALYSIS

    (An example of PLAN Modernization and Development over the last 20 years)​


    [​IMG]

    Type 052 Luhu Class (Upgraded/Modernized in 2015-2016)

    112 Harbbon Launched: Aug 1991 Commissioned: May 1994
    113 Qingdao Launched: Oct 1993 Commissioned: May 1996

    [​IMG]
    Displace: 4,800 tons
    Length: 144 M
    Beam: 16 M
    Draft: 5.1 M
    Speed: 31 Knots
    Crew: 260
    Arm:
    4 × 4 YJ-83 (C-803) anti-ship missiles
    1 × 8-cell FM-90 SAM (8+16 rounds)
    1 × Type H/PJ33A dual 100 mm/56 dual purpose gun
    2 × H/PJ12 (Type 730) 7-barrel 30 mm CIWS
    2 × Type 87 6-tube ASW rocket launchers
    2 × Triple Yu-7 torpedo tubes
    Aircraft Facilities: Dual Hanger for two Harbin Z-9 AWW Helos
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    [​IMG]

    Type 052B Luyang Class (Sino-Sov)

    168 Guangzhou Launched: May 2002 Commissioned: Jul 2004
    169 Wuhan Launched: Oct 2002 Commissioned: Nov 2004

    [​IMG]
    Displace: 6,500 tons
    Length: 155 M
    Beam: 17 M
    Draft: 6 M
    Speed: 30 knots
    Crew: 280
    Arm:
    48 x SA-N-12 Grizzly surface-to-air missiles (2 x single arm launchrers)
    4 × 4 YJ-83 (C-803) anti-ship missiles
    1 × Type 210 100 mm dual purpose gun
    2 x H/PJ12 (Type 730) 7-barrel 30 mm CIWS
    2 x anti-submarine mortars
    2 × Triple Yu-7 torpedo tubes
    Aircraft Facilities: Single Hanger for one Ka-28 ASW Helo
     
  2. Jeff Head
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    [​IMG]

    Type 052C Luyang II Class (1st Sino AEGIS-Like)

    170 Lanzhou Launched: Apr 2003 Commissioned: Sept 2005
    171 Haikou Launched: Oct 2003 Commissioned: Dec 2005
    150 Changchun Launched: Oct 2010 Commissioned: Jan 2013
    151 Zhengzhou Launched: Jun 2011 Commissioned: Dec 2013
    152 Jinan Launched: Dec 2011 Commissioned: Dec 2014
    153 Xi'an Launched: Jun 2012 Commissioned: Feb 2015

    [​IMG]
    Displace: 7,000 tons
    Length: 155.5 M
    Beam: 17.2 M
    Draft: 6.1 M
    Speed: 29 knots
    Crew: 280
    Arm:
    48 VLS (Cold Launch)
    -HHQ-9 long-range surface-to-air missiles (Cold Launch VLS/APAR System) for:
    -C-805 anti-ship missiles
    -4HN-2 land attack missiles
    -YJ-62 anti-ship/land attack cruise missiles
    1 × Type 210 100 mm dual purpose gun
    2 × 30mm Type 730 close-in weapons systems
    2 × Triple Yu-7 torpedo tubes
    4 × 18-tube decoy rocket launcher
    Aircraft Facilities: Single Hanger for one Ka-28 ASW Helo
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    [​IMG]

    Type 052D Luyang III (2nd Gen Sino AEGIS like)

    172 Kunming Launched: Aug 2012 Commissioned: Mar 2014
    173 Changsha Launched: Dec 2012 Commissioned: Aug 2015
    174 Hefei Launched: Jul 2013 Commissioned: Dec 2015
    175 YinChuan Launched: Mar 2014 Commissioned: Jul 2016
    117 Xining Launched: Aug 2014 Trials
    118 Urumqi Launched: Dec 2014 Trials
    154 Xiamen Launched: Jul 2015 Outfitting
    119 Guiyang Launched: Nov 2015 Outfitting
    155 Nanjing Launched: Dec 2015 Outfitting
    156 nnnnnnn Launched: Jul 2016 Outfitting
    120 Chengdu Launched: Aug 2016 Outfitting
    157 nnnnnnn Building
    176 nnnnnnn Building

    [​IMG]
    Displace: 7,500 tons
    Length: 156 M
    Beam: 18 M
    Draft: 6.5 M
    Speed: 30 knots
    Crew: 280
    Arm:
    64 VLS (Cold/Hot Launch VLS/APAR System)
    -CY-5 series ASW missiles
    -CJ-10 LACM
    -YJ-18 or YJ-83 anti-ship missiles
    -HHQ-9 series long range SAM
    -HQ-16 medium range SAM
    -DK-10A (quad-packed) SAM
    1 × H/PJ-38 130mm dual purpose gun
    2 × 30 mm remote controlled gun
    1 × 30mm Type 1130 CIWS
    1 × HHQ-10 short range SAM in 24-cell launcher
    2 × Triple Yu-7 torpedo tubes
    4 × 18-tube decoy rocket launcher
    Aircraft Facilities: Single Hanger for one Ka-28 ASW Helo
    --------------------------------------------------------------

    Historical Analysis

    This historical analysis shows the meticulous and long term planning nature of the Chinese Navy buildup.

    The Type 52 Luhu class was the first set of "modern" PLAN DDGs. They used a hodge-podge of western technology available at the time, put together with Chinese components to produce two destroyers that had some semblance of modern design and weaponry. Ultimately, once the Chinese technologies matured, they were modernized as best as they could.

    It is important to note that the Chinese do modernize these vessels and end up getting the most out of them possible...maintaining their relevance and hull counts.

    They recently did the same thing to the Type 051B vessel, and may ultimately do similar upgrades to the two Type 052B vessels.

    They are doing the same to the Russian Sovremenny vessels they purchased from Russia in the 1990s and early 2000s.

    All of these hulls are in decent shape and have the room...and China is willing to spend the time and money to keep them relevant).

    One critical part of the Luhu design, which has not been repeated on other Type 052 designs, is that the Luhu had a dual hanger and carry two ASW helicopters. This dramatically increases the ASW capabilities as two helicopters allow the vessel to continuously prosecute submarine contacts. Not having two helos on the other classes is an inherent weakness in terms of ASW.

    The second interation of Type 052 vessels, the Type 052 "Bravo" variety was a more modern, more capable multi-role DDG based on Russian technology and was, in essence, a Sino version of the four Sovremenny DDGs the Chinese purchased from Russia. These are powerful multi-role vessels, but are lacking somewhat in area AAW coverage due to the use of two single arm launchers for firing their SAM missiles.

    The third Type 052 "Charlie" variety was the first attempt by the Chinese to develop a truly modern, battle management integrated system using Phased Array Radars and battle management similar to the US Burke Destroyers, but having only 48 VLS Cells and being limited in ASW. The layout of the systems though is very similar to the basic Burke arrangement.

    The fourth and final Type 052 "Delta" variety is the apex of the hull design. Itas 64 VLS cells which are multi-role cell f all sorts of missiles, from Long range to medium range, to quad packed short range missiles, to anti-shipping and land attack cruise missiles. They carry a more powerful 130 mm gun, more powerful radar, and have strong close in defenses using both a Sino version of a RAM-like missile and a massive 11-barrell 30 mm close in Gatling gun.

    The Type 052D are very powerful multi-role vessels and are an example of how far the Chinese have come in the development of their surface combatants. The PLAN is also serial building many of them at two different yards. 13 uave already been launched and it is clear that at least 18, if not more, will be built.

    This vessel however is still limited in its use of a single helicopter hanger, limiting the ability to continuously prosecute ASW targets.

    All of these vessels are still in service.

    A new larger destroyer, but not a Type 52 based vessel, has been designed and is building. It will displace 12k+ tons and will have 112-128 VLS cells and a dual helo hanger. This vessel will be the Type 055 large destroyer. This will represent the Chinese version/answer to the Ticonderoga Cruiser capability of the US Navy, but lies outside the analysis here of the Type 052.
     
    #2 Jeff Head, Aug 9, 2016
    Last edited: Aug 9, 2016
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  3. Blackstone
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  4. Jeff Head
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    The development of the Type 52 destroyer into four different classes, where the initial two were followed by a second class of two, then a class of six, and now a class of 13 at this time, sure to grow to at least 18, shows a phenomenal capability of the Chinese to plan and then build to that plan which has taken their technology from something akin to 1950s technology before, to modern, state of the art technology now.

    These 23 vessels demonstrate the level of commitment and expertise the Chinese have developed.

    ...and it is continuing.

    When you look at the similar progress in the guided-missile frigate (FFG) area, and in the lighter frigates (or littoral combatants) represented by the Type 056, and then compare that to the new high end Type 055 large destroyer (which in this author's opinion will be the Chinese equivalent of the Ticonderoga Cruiser), you see that the PLAN is making similar progress all across the board in terms of its surface combatants.

    Now integrating aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships (right now with their Type 071 LPDs which are very similar in form and function to the US Navy San Antonio Class), it is clear that the Chinese Navy and the Chinese leadership are intent on having a first class, world-class Navy develop in the western Pacific that can contest the US Navy and its allies if necessary within the Chinese sphere of influence...which is growing out beyond the second island chain.
     
    #4 Jeff Head, Aug 9, 2016
    Last edited: Aug 9, 2016
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  5. Jeff Head
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    Just looking at Destroyers:

    in addition to the 23 Type 052 variety, which consist of:

    2 x Type 052
    2 x Type 052B
    6 x Type 052C
    13 Type 052D

    You also have :

    1 x Type 051B
    2 x Type 051C
    4 x Sovremenny

    This represents 30 modern DDGs, all of which are capable vessels.

    The Type 054 and Type 054A FFGs add to this. All of those frigates represent modern, 1st rate multi-role guided missile frigates.

    2 x Type 054
    25 x Type 054A

    This is a total of 57 modern major combatants that the PLAN now has in its inventory...and more Type 054A/B frigates, Type 052D DDGs, and soon Type 055 DDGs are being built.

    Soon, the PLAN will consist of upwards of 70 very modern, very capable surface combatants that are relevant and able to seriously contend with other modern combatants.

    Fifteen years ago the idea that the Chinese Navy would within 15 years have a force of 70+ very modern and capable major surface combatants capable of projecting power into the blue water would have been scoffed at in many quarters.

    Yet it has happened...and is continuing.

    Taking a good look at how the Chinese developed their Type 052 line from an initial modern offering of an almost technology demonstrator into the serial builds of the Type 052C and now the Type 052D shows how they went about it, and indeed how they continue to go about it.
     
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    Taking a good look at how the Chinese went about turning the initial two Type 52 vessels ultimately into the Type 052D design is a critical part of understanding China's Naval growth.

    A lot of thought and planning has gone into taking very meticulous and planned steps to get from what had been basically a 1950s tech based before that time, to a modern, relevant tech base now. They have literally progressed 50 years over the space of 20-25.

    Their logistical chin has allowed for it. Their technological growth has allowed for it. Their manufacturing base has grown to allow for it. Their manning and training has allowed for it.

    All of this did not happen by osmosis or accident. it represents some very serious planning and execution against plans.
     
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  7. Ali Qizilbash
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    Ali Qizilbash Junior Member
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    @Jeff Head Excellent write up and analysis. Very informative synopsis of past two decades.
     
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  8. Jeff Head
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    Thanks.

    The chain of events leading from the 113 Harbin to the latest Type 052D, 120 Chengdu, is typical of what the PRC has been able to accomplish in terms of its naval technology and buildup.

    It is simply impressive by any measure.
     
  9. tphuang
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    Thanks Jeff, I really appreciate this summary. I had not thought about it this way until you posted it here. Looking at 052, it was certainly a platform that had a lot of room for upgrade. And 052D is basically as compact and capable as they possibly could've taken that original design to.
     
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  10. Jeff Head
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    You are welcome.

    The Type 052 story is just a good example of what the PLAN has been about for the last 20 years.

    They created a decent entry point...as best they could back then.

    They then proceeded to improve it.

    But not only that, they are upgrading the older designs as they go.

    The Type 052s
    The Type 051B
    The Sovs

    ...and, as I understand it, the Type 052Bs too may well get the same type of VLS upgrade that the Sovs appear tpo be getting.

    We'll have to see about that.

    But anyway, while moving forward with the new designs, continually making them more and more modern and thus more and more relevant, they then go back and bring the original designs up to whatever level they can to keep them relevant too.
     
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