Contrary to common misconceptions, the Yuan dynasty continued to exist even after the Ming dynasty was founded. Much like the Song Dynasty became the Southern Song, the Yuan dynasty became the Northern Yuan. The Ming and the Northern Yuan Mongols fought many wars against each other. Two particularly noteworthy examples are: Battle of Buyur Lake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tumu Crisis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia I find these wars particularly interesting because the Mongol Cavalry was nigh invincible in the 13th century, and by all accounts they remained effective throughout the 14th century. However, the Ming army under Emperor Hongwu (i.e. Zhu Yuanzhang) was highly effective against Yuan forces. What were the technological advancements that allowed the Ming forces to achieve victory against the mighty Mongol Cavalry? Zhu's campaign to create Ming was one of rare examples where China was "conquered" from the South. The South Song dynasty had a significant weakness with their lack of horses. Zhu's forces pushed from the South to the North, so how did the Ming overcome this weakness? The Tumu Crisis is also fascinating. An expeditionary force of 500k Ming troops was annihilated by less than 5000 Mongol Cavalry. Even factoring in incompetent command from the top, that is a staggering numerical advantage to overcome! How did the Ming army collapse so readily? Why were the Ming military commanders not able to hold their men together and fight back?