Chinese 96-A

Discussion in 'Army' started by Agonizing Bliss, Aug 16, 2014.

  1. Agonizing Bliss
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    Agonizing Bliss New Member

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    This is an article I found on 凤凰网 about 96-A
    If there is someone interested in this artcile.
    I can translate it into English,Russian or Japanese.
    And
    How and where to place photos?

    如何看我96A坦克在坦克大赛上的表现

    南京军区原副司令员王洪光

    在俄罗斯的坦克大赛进行得如火如荼,“前方”的消息不断传来,即有振奋人心的,也有让人沮丧的。广大军迷也争论得脸红脖子粗。这是让人高兴的好现象,说明关心国防和军队建设的人多了。尽管有的意见尖锐且刺耳,“恨铁不成钢”,但爱国拥军之情跃然纸上,令人欣慰。

    作为一名坦克驾驶员出身的老坦克兵,笔者在装甲兵部队、院校和总部装甲兵机关服役30多年,自认为还是有话语权的,可以对这场比赛作一点分析,为军迷助兴。

    这次参赛的我军96A坦克,当时是在笔者的组织领导下研制成功并装备部队的,是出口巴基斯坦坦克改进型,即“出口转内销”。这型坦克有它的优长,也有天生的缺陷。它的优长是火力和防护力,缺陷是机动力;其信息化能力和装备可靠性在改型中不断加强。整车性价比高。它有车载计算机控制的火力控制系统,将激光测距(测角、测速)、自动修正、微光(热成像)夜视、自动装弹连为一体,具有比T-72系列坦克快得多、也精得多的火力打击能力。它的火力系统吸收了东方(前苏联)和西方(欧美国家)各自的优长。在火炮口径、炮口初速、弹丸侵彻力、装填速度等方面继承和发展了东方传统,火炮威力强大;同时又在“猎-歼”观瞄、稳像式火控、目标跟踪、计算机控制、热成像夜视、制炮材料和技术等方面吸收了西方优长,在反应速度和精度上超过了东方坦克。具备在30千米/小时以下的速度对运动目标的精确打击能力。所以在这次坦克比赛中连中三发、无一脱靶,正是这一优长的体现。而它机动力弱的缺陷,在研制这型坦克时就已知道,尽管在改型时不断增强,但毕竟先天缺陷后天难以完全弥补,在这次比赛中也得到显现。机动力的基础是发动机功率。96系列坦克战斗全重41-43吨,发动机功率由540马力逐步增大到780马力。这已是这型发动机在材料、结构、传动件等方面的极限,否则就要更换动力更大型号的发动机。不仅购置费用大大增加,车内动力仓空间也要增大,挤占作战空间或加大外在体型。所以96系列坦克的功率只有18-19马力/吨。比T-72后续型坦克24马力/吨差了不少。动力不足表现在实际中,就是起动慢,加速性差,上坡费力,看起来四平八稳。不像大马力发动机的坦克虎虎有生气,在越过断崖时,甚至有腾飞的感觉。所以,有人说96A坦克是二代的底盘(机械化),三代的炮塔(数字化),是有道理的。

    防护力在比赛中无法体现。笔者可以负责任地说,96A坦克比T-72系列好得多。我们看到的半圆形炮塔,都是铸造炮塔,不管其外面加装多少附加装甲(大多是反应装甲,只能对付破甲弹),其实对动能穿甲弹的主要防护能力,产生于炮塔本体。铸钢炮塔因为是浇铸出来的,它的强度比锻造出来再加以焊接的锻造炮塔要弱得多。我们看到的近似矩形的炮塔大都是锻造炮塔,包括96系列坦克。早期的99坦克是铸造+锻造炮塔,先铸造成炮塔框架,再在主要防护部位焊接上锻造甲板。现在厚甲板焊接技术已过关,不论99坦克还是96坦克都是锻造炮塔,再加以复合材料、反应装甲、激光报警、烟幕遮蔽等,我军主战坦克的防护力在世界上可能是最坚固的,除了贫铀穿甲弹,其它弹种很难从炮塔正面击穿。车内还有抑爆抑火、防毒增压装置,对我车内乘员提供了最有力的保护。

    再深入研讨一下,为什么不把所有高新技术都应用于某一型装备上呢?这就有一个作战需求和性价比问题。96系列坦克主要适用于中原和长江以南地区,由于这个区域居民地(城市、乡镇)密集,城乡道路多,水网丘陵地多,对坦克的越野机动能力要求相对不高;特别对登陆和大型岛屿作战,战场容量有限,最大进攻纵深不过一两百千米,如果以“攻击前进”的速度展开攻势行动,可能不需要加油就完成了“当前任务”。所以“高机动性”不是必须的战技指标。同时96坦克面对的是美制M60A3和M1系列坦克,火力和防护力指标就尤其重要了。96坦克火力威力和反应速度、精确度绝不亚于美制M1系列坦克,M60A3就更不在话下。在作战实验室里胜负已分高下,详细报告就不说了。性价比也是考虑的重要因素。集各种高新技术于一身的坦克,其价格也是惊人的。小数量坦克是形不成作战能力的,不像飞机和舰艇,几架或几艘就能形成一个作战编队,甚至1-2架(艘)就能担负一个方面的战役战术任务,而坦克必须形成“集团”、“集群”。“合成营编成”是相对独立的战术单位,30-50辆坦克、步战车及其指挥、保障车辆形成一个“群”,再小的编成则无法独立作战。所以我们在“二战”战场和战后几场战争中,根本看不到小分队战术单位作战,就是这个道理。因此单坦克性价比的重要性就凸显出来了,一辆99系列坦克能买3辆96系列坦克。作为军方,是采购一个连的99坦克、还是采购一个营的96坦克划算?当然,作为装备骨干,高精尖技术的装备也是需要的,陆军就体现在99系列坦克上。就好比美国的F-22战机和F-35战机,我国的歼20战机和歼31战机。我陆军的99坦克和96坦克高低搭配,一个主要用于“三北”广阔战场上,一个主要用于黄河长江流域相对狭小的地形上,难道不是“绝配”吗?

    最后还要告诉军迷们,坦克大赛只是对坦克乘员驾驶技能和射击技能的比赛,可以部分反映坦克固有的机动力和火力水平,但并不能全面反映坦克的战术技术性能,即作战能力。如完全不能反映坦克的防护能力、信息化能力、战场持续能力和可维修能力,火炮威力和弹丸侵彻力也反映不出来。与战场上的坦克完全不是一回事,不必用作战要求来评定一场竞技比赛。这就是为什么参赛的选手多为前苏联加盟共和国和主要装备苏联坦克的国家,以及为什么统一使用T-72系列坦克的原因所在。我军参加比赛的坦克乘员来自笔者曾服役过的老部队。这个部队是我军首批装备96A坦克的,笔者对这个部队的训练水平是高度认可的、充满信心的,他们平常也经常进行射击、驾驶、通信、维修等专业技能的比武竞赛,与世界同行和潜在对手相比毫不逊色,甚至技高一筹。通过比赛向外军学习,一定能百尺竿头,更进一步。
     
  2. Agonizing Bliss
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    Agonizing Bliss New Member

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    这次参赛的我军96A坦克,当时是在笔者的组织领导下研制成功并装备部队的,是出口巴基斯坦坦克改进型,即 “出口转内销”。这型坦克有它的优长,也有天生的缺陷。它的优长是火力和防护力,缺陷是机动力;其信息化能 力和装备可靠性在改型中不断加强。整车性价比高。它有车载计算机控制的火力控制系统,将激光测距(测角、测 速)、自动修正、微光(热成像)夜视、自动装弹连为一体,具有比T-72系列坦克快得多、也精得多的火力打击能力。它的火力系统吸收了东方(前苏联)和西方(欧美国家)各自的 优长。在火炮口径、炮口初速、弹丸侵彻力、装填速度等方面继承和发展了东方传统,火炮威力强大;同时又在“ 猎-歼”观瞄、稳像式火控、目标跟踪、计算机控制、热成像夜视、制炮材料和技术等方面吸收了西方优长,在反应速 度和精度上超过了东方坦克。具备在30千米/小时以下的速度对运动目标的精确打击能力。所以在这次坦克比赛中连中三发、无一脱靶,正是这一优长的体现。 而它机动力弱的缺陷,在研制这型坦克时就已知道,尽管在改型时不断增强,但毕竟先天缺陷后天难以完全弥补, 在这次比赛中也得到显现。机动力的基础是发动机功率。96系列坦克战斗全重41-43吨,发动机功率由540马力逐步增大到780马力。这已是这型发动机在材料、结构、传动件等方面的极限 ,否则就要更换动力更大型号的发动机。不仅购置费用大大增加,车内动力仓空间也要增大,挤占作战空间或加大 外在体型。所以96系列坦克的功率只有18-19马力/吨。比T-72后续型坦克24马力/吨差了不少。动力不足表现在实际中,就是起动慢,加速性差,上坡费力,看起来四平八稳。不像大马力发动机的 坦克虎虎有生气,在越过断崖时,甚至有腾飞的感觉。所以,有人说96A坦克是二代的底盘(机械化),三代的 炮塔(数字化),是有道理的。

    English: This time our army 96A tanks, was leading organizations in the developed and the equipment, is the export of Pakistan tank improved, namely "export to the domestic". This type of tank has its advantages, there are inherent defects. Its advantages are firepower and protection, defect is power; it can force and equipment reliability has been strengthened in the modification. The high performance price ratio. It has an on-board computer control of the fire control system, the laser range finder (the angle and speed measuring), automatic correction, low light level (thermal imaging) night vision, automatic loading together, ability is much faster than T-72 series tank, also fine much firepower. Fire system which absorbs the East (Soviet) and Western (European countries) their own advantages. The inheritance and development of traditional Oriental in caliber gun, muzzle velocity, projectile penetration, loading speed, powerful artillery; at the same time in the "hunting - F" sight, image stabilizing fire control, target tracking, computer control, thermal imaging night vision, processed materials and technology, the absorption of the advantages. The reaction speed and accuracy over the eastern tank. With the 30 km / hour below the speed of moving target precision strike capability. So in this tank game even in the three, without a miss, it is the advantages of. And it maneuvering weak defect, in the development of this type of tank already know, despite the continuous enhancement in the modified, but after all, congenital defect is difficult to fully compensate for the day after tomorrow, visible also in this competition. Basic mobility is the power of the engine. The 96 series tanks fighting the whole weight of 41-43 tons, an increase in engine power gradually from 540 horsepower to 780 horsepower. This is the limit this type of engine in the material, structure, transmission parts and so on, or to replace the larger versions of the engine power. Not only the acquisition costs increase, the car engine compartment space to increase, occupy the battle space or increase the external shape. So the power of 96 series tanks only 18-19 HP / ton. T-72 subsequent tank 24 HP / ton lot worse. Power manifested in the lack of practice, is to start slow, speed difference, the uphill effort, looks well. Unlike great horsepower engine tank alive, over the cliff, even off the feeling. So, some people say that the 96A tank is the two generation chassis (mechanized), the three generation of the turret (digital), is justified.
     
  3. PanAsian
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    PanAsian Major

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    Not a surprise, China lags significantly in propulsion technology of all types (land, sea, and air) as these are very specialized technologies which require investment and progress in their specific component industries. China doesn't have as developed of a scientific and industrial base for them in the first place, and I suspect they have not invested as much as needed to develop this base due to financial constraints, as in the fact that such investments do not provide enough economic or social returns (civilian applications and job creation) compared to other investments. From all appearances this trend is only going to continue or worsen as I don't see China being willing or able to devote the amount of resources needed to catch up to the leaders in these technologies and they clearly have no intention to transfer these technologies to China.
     
  4. siegecrossbow
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    siegecrossbow Brigadier
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  5. Blackstone
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    Nice showing by Team China. Once the "lessons learned' is absorbed, her teams will perform even better in the future. Doubters need only to look at Sniper competitions for proof.
     
  6. Lezt
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    Lezt Junior Member

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    I disagree with that assessment. you do not need to be on the bleeding edge of technology to be competitive; and secondly, china is investing hugely into all areas of technology.

    Why put a 1200 HP engine into a tank when a 800 HP one provides 90% of the performance, is 50% of the cost and is more fuel economical?

    And lets be frank, which country in this world have good combustion engine technology, USA, Germany, Japan, UK, France, Russia, Ukraine? All of them except Japan had begun ICE from the 1850s, Japan started theirs in the 1900s, China really got into the ICE business post 1950s. A hundred years leap is a great gap, now it is maybe around 15 years gap? so the gap is shrinking and it should continue to shrink.

    The issue is not the combustion cycles and optimization, it is the material science and manufacturing technology; those will need more time to pick up
     
  7. siegecrossbow
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    #7 siegecrossbow, Aug 16, 2014
    Last edited: Aug 16, 2014
  8. advill
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    advill Junior Member

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    Bet you the PLA team will try much harder to win 1st Place the next time. Good to have friendly competition among countries; and also like the recent cooperative naval exercise RIMPAC hosted by the USN.



     
  9. Bltizo
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    Bltizo Lieutenant General

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    Well, the Type 96A is relatively underpowered compared to the T-72s some others were using, so coming third in what is essentially a timed race is quite an achievement.

    What I'm more interested in is the firing accuracy, and the firing condition/speed of vehicle for the various tanks, as that will reflect quite accurately on their fire control systems, which is probably the most real world combat extrapolation you can make from this biathlon. Apparently the Type 96A did very well in this regard, being the only tank to not miss any targets, but that was news from a few days ago, I'm not sure how the accuracy scores have changed since.
     
  10. plawolf
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    I remember the Chinese team expressing the view that the shooting phases didn't really test them at all.

    While it is only natural that no one likes to loose, it is rare for PLA participants at international competitions to display their displeasure so openly. Normally the PLA pride themselves on being good sports, so I seriously wonder if there was some 'oddities' about the results that the official Chinese and other participating teams and media are too 'polite' to speak of openly of.

    The collision that knocked a 96 out of action during the first day of the contest with a Russian tank (who got no penalties), and the rules/set up that prevented the PLA team from finishing their shot until the previous team had finished, so were forced to sit around for over a minute at least waiting to be allowed to shoot would no doubt cause some grumblings, especially if the minutes lost to those incidents proved to be the difference between 1st and 3rd.

    Something else to consider is that this event does not seem to have taken fuel management/economy into account at all. It would have been more interesting if tanks had to do circuits so long they needed to refuel a few times.
     
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