This is a discussion on 1903 British-Tibet,China War within the Military History forums, part of the China Defense & Military category; After the Opium War, Britain, France and Russia and other countries, with the use of the unequal treaties signed between ...
After the Opium War, Britain, France and Russia and other countries, with the use of the unequal treaties signed between the Qing dynasty, sent many explorers, missionaries, travels to the name from all directions into the Tibetan region of China activities. Britain also sent spies disguised as many from India to the Zhaofo, secretly with a measurement tool in Tibet mapping map, record weather data, surveillance of military facilities in Tibet. Russia has also used its rule of Tibet and Mongolia Buliyate region's religious ties, sending monks Tibet activities, and organizations explorer into the Tibetan region. These people reconnaissance Tibetan areas of roads, terrain, social conditions, mapping, to further aggression against China's Tibetan region in preparation. These explorers were strongly opposed to the Tibetan monks and laymen, they repeatedly presented to the Qing Dynasty of intrinsic, expressed firm opposition to foreigners allowed to visit Tibet travels, Gasha also repeatedly ordered officials throughout the monks and laymen, is not allowed to foreigners Tibet, once discovered, should be fully Block, to enable them to return. With the British and Russian hegemony in Asia, the United Kingdom to consolidate its colonial rule in India, strongly sphere of influence extended to the Himalayas to the north. To this end, the British imperialist aggression against China's Tibet activities gradually escalating until the two militants launched a war of aggression in Tibet.
Britain and India in the face of the expansion of the south of the Himalayas of Tibet serious threat, the broad masses of Tibetan people's determination to resolutely resist and defend their own homeland, to the 13th Dalai Lama of the Tibetan monks and laymen led by top Indian and British aggression from Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal to see examples of the aggressive activities of the United Kingdom and India for their political and economic interests and religious status of the harm that Britain and India to resist the aggression. In 1884 the local government of Tibet and Sikkim in the southern sector to the various Xianyao path on the establishment of checkpoints, Britain and India sent people to cross the border to prevent spying. Particularly in the south of Shanxi pull out of the heat is satisfied that the Long spit in the construction of a tall mountain fortress Fort, to send 200 troops stationed in Tibet, India and Britain closely monitor the trends in Sikkim. British imperialists of the Tibetan people to strengthen their border measures, it is very irritated, and do everything possible to prevent damage. In 1885 they sent people to study business and the name of minerals from Sikkim into the gang in Pakistan, by local officials and people's resolute opposition, not allowed them to advance, the two sides stalemate few months, Yingren can not advance, even threatened to send troops " Taofa. " Britain also put pressure on the Qing dynasty, the Qing dynasty to retreat to the border of Tibet. They said that Tibet's first-in-long spit security is impeding trade, but also the Qing government issued a note simply that-long spit in the mountains are under their "protection" of the territory of Sikkim, Tibet, the military here is the cross-border security, the deadline to Tibet Dismantling Tuibing card, otherwise they will take military action, the use of force to resolve. At that time, the Qing government in the Western imperialist powers for the offensive and attack, the British imperialists always compromise or concession to a British offensive to the threat of force, there would not ask the merits, Tibet Minister Chuan-Ling Shuo-wen, he should let the local government of Tibet Spit-long retreat in the mountains of the garrison. The order by the Qing Dynasty, the Tibetan people's stiff resistance, they submit to the Minister of the intrinsic stationed in Tibet, pointed out that heat is satisfied that Tibet has always been in place, Lung spit in the mountains northeast of Nazon, of course, is Tibet's place. Although the Jiaqing years because of Sikkim soil Wang's request, to allow Sikkim herdsmen in Tibet is satisfied that in the heat of the turf "living accommodation, animal husbandry", but the heat is satisfied that Tibet is still in place. At the same time affirms that the people of Tibet have been determined, "the death to resist and must nil II", even if the "battle between men and women must make" no estoppel. Liquciqiong British imperialists in the circumstances, has taken a rogue means that the areas north of the Long spit twist satisfied that the heat is satisfied that the case, it is necessary to satisfy the Tibetan people moved back to twist. At the same time actively Moving Missile British imperialists, transporting ammunition, ready to launch a war. February 1888, the British defense that is on a card-long spit Hill, the Tibetan army launched a sudden attack, the Army of a heroic resistance, after several days of Aozhan, the British garrison in the fierce artillery bombardment, the Tibetan army can not insist that the withdrawal To the satisfaction of soup, built defensive walls. At the same time one after another before and after the mobilization of militia reinforcements million people on the frontline. Qing government in the beginning of the war, still insists on the principle of compromise for peace, and in March will stand to resist British aggression in Tibet and India-seok, the Minister dismissed, or alternates Thai Minister of succession in Tibet. Or Thailand after the arrival, that meet the requirements of British India, and British Yihe, and to prevent possession of the British army launched counterattacks, which adversely affected favorable fighters, so that British troops could easily prepared once again to launch an attack. August, a large number of reinforcements after the British garrison stationed on the possession of military-satisfied attack, although the large number of troops, weapons and equipment behind, however, the actual strength of a lot worse than the British garrison, resulting in the defeat of the military again, then back to pull out Hill. October or Thailand from Lhasa to Yadong front-line negotiations with the British Indian Yihe, the Qing Dynasty, Amun's national affairs has sent a British Hyok Thai government to do or the translation and his assistant. He governance "middleman" appear, the dark side of the British side for sending information, advice, or Thai side also put pressure on Thailand to force or completely succumbed to the British side's request. In the negotiations after the end of February 1890, the Qing dynasty sent to Calcutta, India or Thailand, India and the United Kingdom in the Governor Langston signed a "meeting of the Sino-British Treaty and India", not only acknowledged the Sikkim by the British protection, and in accordance with the United Kingdom Request to the Hill to pull out of the boundaries of Tibet and Sikkim, the Chinese lost from the heat in Pakistan is satisfied that Daogang in the southern part of large tracts of land and pasture. Thailand in 1892 or dead-Jin Kong, in 1893 the Qing Dynasty He Changrong to send representatives to Darjeeling and the British side signed "in the possession of the renewal of India" provides for the China Open Oriental Commercial Ports, the United Kingdom this can enjoy extraterritoriality, and Provides five-year border containing tin imports of goods will not pay tax. These two treaties, including the Tibetan people by the entire Chinese people, the resolute opposition of Lhasa, the Tibetan people of different San Dasi call the British-Indian trade, Indian tea boycott distribution Tibet, the Tibetan people also removed by the legislature of the British-Indian boundary markers, adhere to the watershed On their original grazing on the ranch, show a resolute fight against the British aggression against India and the courage and determination.
Although the United Kingdom through the first war of aggression in Tibet has achieved many interests, but this is not the British imperialists to meet, and actively prepared to Tibet for more large-scale aggression. In 1894, the Sino-Japanese War, China was Japan's defeat, the imperialist powers in China set off to carve up the waves. 1900 Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded China, the United Kingdom that opportunity, once again preparing to launch large-scale war of aggression in Tibet. The summer of 1902, the United Kingdom to send troops into Pakistan in the post Jaggang places, the demolition of delimitation of the E-Bo, Shou-sector drive out of the army, seized the local herders of cattle and sheep. 1903 British and Pakistani troops Daogang of provocation, has been the seat of the Palestinian Chuangdao Kong, the Chinese sent officials Daogang Pakistan in the talks, the Tibetan local government immediately sent 700 of Pakistan Army were deployed Daogang, translated and sent Qinbo SIN And wiping behalf of the Cashmere and Zhifu He Guangwei-sup to Gamba in the negotiations, because the British side vexatious, said He Guangwei, not the post-sup as negotiator, Minister of Tibet to come to negotiations, the talks made no progress. In fact the British imperialism in the post of Palestinian provocations and negotiations only to divert the attention of the Tibetan people, they have long in the planning of Tibet launch a new military offensive.
November 1903, the British mobilization of infantry, cavalry, artillery more than 3,000 people, from McDonald, Major-General Command, to escort the Secretary for Home Affairs Colonel Peng-hyuk and stationed in Tibet to negotiate on behalf of the Minister, secretly pull out the Fan Yue Shan, in Tibet The lack of preparation for the case, despite the discouraging local officials, one stroke occupation of East Asia. British troops have occupied in the news Yadong, Tibet Minister Yu Steel do not want to go negotiations, the local government of Tibet to Parry to hurry troop movements defense, and ordered list of the militia reinforcements rushed to Parry. However, in possession before the military arrived, the British first occupied in late December Parry. Then-British troops continue to escort Peng He is satisfied that the name of progress to the reactor, where it encountered by the color behalf of the Levin, Lin Lang behalf of the color and Yoshiura such as the command was ordered to stop the advance of British forces in 2000 People. Redding color behalf of the British demands to return to East Asia to open negotiations, Peng-hyuk arbitrarily rejected this reasonable demand. Confrontation between the two sides to March of 1904, the British garrison in prepared, brazenly launched an offensive on the armed forces in Tibet. At that time, in possession of the right-wing military reactor is satisfied that more than five miles north of Lake-Motoc the West Bank Qu Misen Valley, and built a Aiqiang as fortifications, the more left-wing in the southern bank of Lake-measures. He Peng-pretend with Redding, and so on behalf of the color and other positions in the dialogue before the debate and said that both sides should show sincerity in peace talks to British troops will withdraw from the Qiangtang bullets for camouflage, and deception of the Army matchlock gun fire extinguished. At that time, only a few of the military officers a fast gun, the matchlock gun fire extinguished after a longer time to re-ignite, and the British pop gun bullets can be quickly re-push Shang Tang, Peng-hyuk of this trick, in the Tibetan army On the battlefield in a very disadvantageous position. British troops also secretly an outflanking to possession of the military behind the mountains, set up machine-gun fire. In prepared, McDonald ordered British troops forcibly disarm possession of armed forces to stir up conflict. When British troops snatch Redding behalf of the color of firearms, he rose up fire, and killed a British garrison. McDonald ordered British troops immediately opened fire, machine-gun fire in possession of military-intensive. Possession of the military too late to ignite matchlock matchlock guns, one after another fell to the bullets of the British garrison, making the so-called "battle", has actually become a bloody massacre, the Tibetan army and the Redding color, color-Lin Lang, and so on behalf of the More than 1,400 people and sacrifice, and only two British army officers were injured, 13 soldiers casualties.
British bombardment of Tibet / British army commander McDonald
British troops in April Kangma Sama Da river valley near the military defeat of the stop, captured in Gyangze. He Peng-wing victory that has been in sight, such as the British Government only approved his direct hit Lhasa, the Tibetan soldiers and civilians forced to yield the plan, therefore leaving only part of the British garrison stationed at the edge Nianchu He's Luo Linka, and the remaining British troops escorted MR Ke Tangna to return to East Asia, the mobilization of additional troops to launch a greater blessing action. At that time the newly appointed Minister of Tibet and Thailand not only have less than Gyangze to stop the British garrison, but in reply to-Hyuk-peng said that the Tibetan people themselves "without the guidance of the" have to wait after the complete failure of the Tibetan people with the British - Party talks. Early in combat and lost in Tibet Minister of the multi-block circumstances, the Anti-British soldiers and civilians in Tibet will continue to unswervingly, in addition to repeatedly 'fine tune the Emperor Yu Han Bing, aided unpaid ", morale remains high throughout the militia sent to Gyangze The war. To early May, the Tibetan army has deployed more than 10,000 people in Xigaze, Gyangze Nagarze to the forefront. May 3, Peng-hyuk Fenbing again, with some of his own British presence Jiang Luo Linka, in another part of Elton Brand under the command of Lieutenant Colonel offensive Ge Rafah, beat Army and the local Tibetan Nagarze direction to pursue. On at this time, the Tibetan army from the main path into the other to Gyangze, recovered in the Castle in Gyangze, white Habitat Temple, Qu Lung Temple, and other important positions, and more than 1,000 Jiang Luo Linka in line before dawn, when the British army took possession heard shouting from the sound asleep woke up, armed with machetes and spears to see the Tibetan army Have been washed before the scare Hunfeiposan, Peng Lai He is in extreme panic Gubu De organized resistance, fled to South Qu panic rather than chapter. He later admitted, if not in the habit of the military in accordance with the EU before the loud cry, British troops to awaken, ready to be a bit of time, all of them will be the eradication of the military at one stroke. Elton Brand Lieutenant Colonel hurried back to the troops in Gyangze, only slightly stabilize the ground so that the British garrison. Surprise attacks on British troops after victory , The Tibetan soldiers and civilians surrounded a British resident, a rush repair works day and night, in mountains and Baiju Si connected into a whole, here and in the determination of the British invasion forces blood in the end. May 24, the British received reinforcements in, Jushou possession of the military attack on the village of Parra, possession of the British army killed Jiasi Ding Dawei, two other anti-Dawei, the British garrison in a considerable cost after Parra scored the village. He Peng-see Gyangze British troops are still very dangerous situation, in the June 5 with the dozens of cavalry to break through Yadong Banbing, Kangma encountered in the road ambush of the military, Peng Rong He also nearly died. Late June-hyuk Peng and McDonald Battalion command-bound troops from Yadong Gyangze, at this time of a military build-up in Nanjing is the Temple, a threat to the British line, that is, British-Temple is the start of the onslaught, the Tibetan army and the Monk With the public is-tall temple walls and halls of stubborn resistance. Shelling of a large British garrison wall, damaging most of hall, and then swarmed Rusi, Tibetan monks still adhere to the military and not to war and British troops started Rou Bo, one to Since the cloth in the militia, using machetes and spears to the major anti-British, the Tibetan army and the monks have mostly died a heroic death. Last British casualties to the cost of more than 200 people were captured Nanjing Temple, they will not only Tsongkhapa Master and I, II, the Dalai Lama has been self-cultivation in this study is the Temple-looted air, and will also unwilling to surrender the Tibetan monks and laymen tied to a flagpole Jingfan shot. Ning Temple is so far there are many British Duanyuancanbi The guns lay a bomb hole. Then again attack the British garrison and Baiju Si Zi Xinan Jiang across the river another famous temple Grand Temple (Tsongkhapa Masters here in the study and said the legislature), cut off Gyangze and Xigaze The traffic. Tibetan army and the monks adhere to more than 800 people in the mountains, the British artillery to blow up the mountains of the hall, after a day of heavy fighting and drove in the Grand Temple.
Gyangze people against the invasion by British troops of the Fort
Gyangze battles after the July 14 British troops also towards Lhasa. Anti-British struggle in Tibet when the situation has changed, the leadership of organized armed resistance has been drawing to a close, the local government of Tibet in the compromise Touxiang Pai's forces gained ground, in their Gasha government, under pressure from soldiers and civilians sent to Tibet to stop the resistance The orders and sent Ga-lun and other officials for monks and laymen negotiator for talks with British troops on the way to discourage British troops not to enter Lhasa. At that moment, the Peng Lai He, however, he was completely torn off to Tibet and the Tibetan minister and representatives of trade negotiations and the border issue "peace envoy" and do not pay attention to the Tibetan side of the peace talks, issued the call, anxious to reach Lhasa. July 31, the British garrison in Qushui through the Yarlung Zangbo River, in this critical juncture, the 13th Dalai Lama fled Lhasa to lead a small number of followers, Tanggulashan Fan Yue, the Qaidam Basin, and Anxi, to Outer Mongolia. Gandan the Dalai Lama before his appointment as Acting Jimzhong Gyaincain Chek Ba Luosang Regent, and GaLun and the three representatives of assistance, for the Chief. August 3, British troops occupied Lhasa. Qing Dynasty in the 13th Dalai Lama left Lhasa, in Tibet according to a Thai Minister of Zouqing, the name of the Dalai Lama announced that it would "temporarily get rid of."
Tibetan Anti-British soldiers
Participated in the 1904 Anti-British soldiers fighting the Tibetans, Dawa Toinzhub Kangma County elderly
13th Dalai Lama to come to Outer Mongolia, was originally by his side's Buliyate Mongolian monks Del-chi, who instigated, would like to get Russia's help to Dandi. But just been Japan's defeat in Russia at this time, unable to provide material assistance, so that the 13th Dalai Lama is still pinning hopes on the Qing dynasty. 1906, the Qing Dynasty in the request, he returned to depart from the Coulomb possession, Ta Ersi come to Qinghai, Tibet because of the Qing Dynasty in the implementation of the New Deal and the Tibetan areas in Sichuan flow to the implementation of soil improvement, in the Taer Si refuge. November 1907, the Qing dynasty approval of the Dalai Lama went to Beijing to the requirements of pilgrims, as he Lanzhou, Xi'an, in January 1908 to Mount Wutai in the ceremony, waiting for Beijing. At that time Russia, the United States in Beijing and envoys of Japan and Germany, a series of diplomatic personnel to meet the Dalai Lama, Mount Wutai, the British envoy in Beijing and the Dalai Lama through an intermediary link has been made. By the end of September, the 13th Dalai Lama to Beijing from Mount Wutai, the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu met with and hosted him several times, given the volumes of printed, he resumed the name of the Dalai Lama, sealing him "-- Chan of the West good comfortable Buddha ", but not ratified the Qing Dynasty stationed in Tibet after the Dalai Lama is not the emperor appeal directly to the Minister's request, so that he deeply dissatisfied. During this period, the British special envoy met with the Dalai Lama, Tibet also sent familiar with the situation in Gyangze Trade Commission E Connor with Sikkim Prince to Beijing to participate in the British minister and the Dalai Lama's meeting with the Dalai Lama Rope, and the Dalai Lama to Britain's attitude also has important change to improve relations with the United Kingdom. Immediately after the death of Emperor Guangxu and Empress Dowager Cixi, the 13th Dalai Lama at the end of 1908 that is left to the possession.
Qing dynasty in the implementation of soil improvement district to the flow of people and sent Sichuan troops of Qing army, a threat to the Tibetan monks and laymen top of the political and economic interests, from the Qing dynasty, led by the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan monks and laymen the upper part of the conflict, prompting the firm from the 13th Dalai Lama Anti-British changes to rely on the support of the United Kingdom to keep his power and interests rule. Also on the way back to Tibet, He ordered Lunqinxiazha classes McGREGOR Duoji arrayed the Tibetan army and militia forces blocking Sichuan troops access to Tibet, and the British envoy of the Qing Dynasty come forward to stop oppression of Sichuan troops entered Tibet. November 1909, the 13th Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa, the first formally appointed pro-British faction aristocratic classes Xiazha McGREGOR Duoji, and other three were Lunqin, control of power. February 1910, the Sichuan troops led by Zhong Ying arrived Lasa , the military immediately and possession of sporadic conflict, which makes the already stationed in Tibet and the Minister Yu tension between the 13th Dalai Lama Zuowo unrest, immediately ordered Mexican forest policy Living Buddha For the Regent, stay in Lhasa, their lead Lunqinxiazha and a few officials to escape. Yu catch up with the troops, in Qushui possession by the military stop, not to catch up with. By the end of February, the 13th Dalai Lama arrived in India by Yadong Darjeeling. According to the minister of the Qing Dynasty stationed in Tibet's Zou Qing Yu, leather again to the 13th Dalai Lama's name, and the United Kingdom for his warm reception, arrange for him to tour around India, in Darjeeling to provide him with housing and living supplies. Let the Dalai Lama in Darjeeling set up Gasha, and Lhasa, the Tibetan local government officials keep in touch, remote Tibet's development. Although on the surface that the British non-interference in Tibetan affairs and remain neutral, in fact intensified use of the 13th Dalai Lama fled to India the situation, to prepare for further aggression against Tibet.
Last edited by maozedong; 06-24-2008 at 06:20 PM.