This is a discussion on JH-7/JH-7A Thread within the Air Force forums, part of the China Defense & Military category; It's refreshing to see a chinese official himself doing the answering. Chief Designer: China able to fix Flying Leopard's turbofan ...
It's refreshing to see a chinese official himself doing the answering.
Chief Designer: China able to fix Flying Leopard's turbofan alone
Global Times - Chief Designer: China able to fix Flying Leopard's turbofan alone
* Source: Global Times
* [14:09 June 12 2009]
Flying Leopard. Photo: chinamil.com.cn
By Liu Chang
Reports on China's intention to cooperate with aircraft engine makers in the UK and France to improve the performance of the turbofan of PLA fighter bomber JH-7, are denied by the chief designer of the aircraft, Chen Yijian, Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering. According to Chen, China has also already fixed problems with the JH-7 turbofan, Hong Kong newspaper Ta Kung Pao reported.
Also known as the Flying Leopard, JH-7 initially used the WS-9 Qinling turbofan, which were from turbofans produced by the Rolls-Royce Spey company in the UK. But after years of research, China has fixed problems with the turbofans of Flying Leopard on its own, according to Chen.
Chen went on to say that China's research on turbofans is still lagging behind compared with some other countries, especially the turbofans of large aircrafts. China has been calling for more research talents to help solve this problem. He said the third generation of China's fighter bombers, including the J-8 series, J-10 series and the Flying Leopard, have taken shape of a combatant power, and will appear in the Military Parade to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the nation.
According to Ta Kung Pao, China began research on the WS-15 Qinling-2 Turbofan in 1998. The Qinling-2 Turbofan is an improvement on the WS-9 turbofan, with increased pre-heating temperatures on the turbines and reduced weight for greater efficiency. Tests on the Qinling-2 Turbofan in October 2008 were successful. It is now technically competitive to the late M53-P2 engine from France.
any comparative data for WS-15 and WS-9?
据了解，为满足歼轰-7A的需要，中国在1998年初开始研究“秦岭-2”（WS-15）涡扇发动机，这是一种先进的双转子加力式涡扇发动机，从增加发动机涡轮前温度和减轻结构重量两个方面 ，对WS-9原型机进行了现代化改进。“秦岭-2”发动机由中国燃气涡轮研究院624所和西安航空发动机公司共同研制，于2008年10月完成了定型实验 ，已达到法国M53P2发动机中后期的技术水平。（WS-9为早期产品 WS-9A为全国产化的生产型）
5.取消附 面 层控制系统
牌 号 涡扇15
用 途 军用涡扇发动机
类 型 涡轮风扇发动机
国 家 中国
厂 商 西安航空发动机公司
[ 转自铁血社区 ÌúÑªÉçÇø - ÌúÑªÂÛÌ³ ]最大不加力推力(daN) 6767.88
[ 转自铁血社区 ÌúÑªÉçÇø - ÌúÑªÂÛÌ³ ]总增压比 21.5
陈一坚表示，中国发动机研究目前仍存在不少问题，与国外存在一定差距。例如在大飞机的研究上，发动机就 是一个急需突破的课题，目前中国已组织大量科研人员对此进行攻关。此外，他透露，包括“飞豹”、歼八、歼十 在内的中国第三代歼击机目前已形成战斗力了，将在国庆60周年阅兵仪式上集中亮相。
correct me,nothing has change,no extra thrust,but longer life span?
Huh. I always thought the WS-15 was going to have greater thrust than the WS-10. Instead it seems to have less?
Great Story If You Can Read Chinese!
马承麟：原航空航天部军机司副司长，主管“飞豹”飞机研制工作，兼任飞机研制现场副总指挥，一直到1995 年飞机基本型设计定型审查完。 “飞豹”飞机研制周期较长，上马时，是根据中国当时航空工业的实际能用的条件进行设计的；着眼于战斗力观点 ，以满足实战需求为目标。并“与时俱进”地不断改用可能用上的新技术新设备，走过了一个风雨历程。“飞豹” 已是我空海军一代重要武器装备，笔者着重写了亲身经历的坎坷事。
“飞豹”即FBC-1，是我国航空工业集团公司西安飞机设计所设计、西安飞机公司制造、中国试飞研究院完成定型试飞的歼击轰炸 机，是填补我国空军、海军航空兵装备空白的机种。1998年8月由国务院、中央军委定型委员会批准设计定型 并装备部队。在98珠海航展上，“飞豹”已向世界公布“解密”，进行了飞行表演，当时广播电视、报纸都做了 大量报道。1999年10月1日建国五十周年大庆，飞豹飞过天空门上空，接受中央首长检阅。
“飞豹”装有两台发动机，前后座双人体制，是对空对地对海多功能超音速歼击轰炸机。所装成品附件、武器全是 我国自行设计、制造的，其研制经历十分坎坷。从国务院、中央军委原常规装备发展领导小组1977年2月批准 立项研制到1995年12月飞机设计定型第一次审查会通过，共18年。在前5年即1981年前，由于国家经 济困难，飞机研制工作不能全面铺开，是“量力而行不断线”，主要是进行总体方案设计、布局和吹风试验工作； 而且当时航空工业内部体制变动多，也对此造成一定影响。
那时我在航空研究院科技部飞机部工作，对这个型号参加过一些讨论和调研。1982年5月，我被任命为航空工 业部重点新机办副主任(主任是张金波同志)，参与研制并任机关负责人、现场副总指挥；就是到1991年退休 ，仍返聘为研制机关负责人、现场副总指挥；直到1995年12月飞机的第一次设计定型审查会通过止，实际工 作了14年。基本上参加了飞机研制工作的全过程(只是空舰弹定型打靶尚未进行，故直到1998年才正式批准 全武器系统设计定型)。在“飞豹”研制中的技术攻关是很多的，下面仅是记忆犹新的一些事。
1977年2月，中央军委原常规装备发展领导小组下达型号的研制任务，作为当时部队现役装备轰一5的后继机 ，是空海军共用的“通用型”飞机。西安飞机设计所按要求进行总体方案设计，采用双人体制、串座型座舱布局， 即两名空勤人员在前后舱工作，前舱为驾驶员，后舱为领航员并负责武器投放、发射。1977年、1978年开 了方案审议会、成品协调会。然后随着工作逐步展开，技术上的步步深入，空、海军要求的进一步具体化，矛盾就 出来了，主要是：
空军要对付的目标是大规模的装甲集群和纵深防御工事，然而此时的防空武器已经非常完善，几乎没有从高空突破 的可能；因此空军的“飞豹”需要作长时间的超低空高速飞行，而且要快速准确地投弹，达到这个要求二名飞行员 之间的配合极为重要，因而空军希望采用二名飞行员并列双座布局。而海军型的“飞豹”主要任务是攻舰，几乎完 全可以靠仪表完成，这使得后座电子设备复杂，因此海军希望能能后座武器操作员留出尽可能大的空间，即希望采 用串列双座布局；投弹后要有较好的歼击性能。
设计人员进一步调整方案强化歼击性能，使飞行马赫数M从原来的1.5加大到1.7，成为现在的“飞豹”。1 980年8月，总参、国防工办发文要求总师单位根据空、海军不同要求，对飞机实行“一机两型”的设计原则。 1982年4月经原中央军委主席邓小平批准，“飞豹”列为常规武器装备重点研制项目，串座型先走一步，19 79年进行了木质样机审查，进入打样设计阶段}因此空军一再要求加速并座型工作。1983年12月间，由航 空工业部高镇宁副部长主持，召开了空军型并座布局的方案审查会，西安飞机设计所汇报了方案，提出了一些技术 问题。因并座方案机身粗，阻力大，导致最大速度达不到战技指标要求；并座的弹射救生方案还有难处。当时美国 F-111战斗轰炸机是双人并座，空勤人员弹射救生是把整个座舱连同飞行员一起弹射。我们如按常规弹射方式让主 驾驶后跳，后跳人员有挨先跳人员座椅火箭喷烧的危险；齐跳左右开花方案也考虑过，但是否可行要进行必要的试 验研究和技术攻关，要安排时间、人力和经费。当时座舱布置方式的研究上有很多矛盾：
2、首批用于定型试飞的有5架试验机，各机的飞行试验任务也难安排。有人主张并座型三架，串座型两架，这样 很多同志认为其结果是两种型别飞机的试飞周期都要加长，对整个工作十分不利。如若再增加用于定型试飞飞机的 架数，则即有经费、人力问题，也有技术风险问题，一旦出现预想不到的技术问题，就会导致返工多 ，损失大。
总之，“一机两型”即同时干串并座布局，矛盾很大，一时难以加快研制工作。1986年10月20日～22日 由原总参装备部五局、国防科工委六局负责同志组织空军、海军和航空工业部机关以及主机所、厂主管同志，开会 讨论“飞豹”飞机空军型问题，两天的工作取得了共识。即根据当时主客观条件，只能是集中人力、物力、财力把 条件比较好的串座型5架机尽快干出来，早日拿到手，取得一些经验。对并座型暂时先开展些课题研究，创造条件 ，适当时机再干。会后上报了讨论意见，经正式批准执行。“飞豹”飞机研制工作的这种安排，历史证明是对的， 体现了集中兵力打歼灭战的精神。串并座型问题的解决，可谓是飞机研制中首先解决的攻关项目。
1982年经原国防科工委报请，邓小平同志批准，用增加的拨款继续研制处于暂停状态的“飞豹”飞机。那时是 拨款制，每年的军品研制费都是国防科工委集中拨给工业部门；而当时航空工业部在研的还有歼7、运7、歼8、 运8等多个型号，总的经费仍然不足。“飞豹”虽列上项目，但每年能给的钱很少，很难加速工作。后经所、厂和 机关主管人员多次在部和科工委各层次会议上提出要求，尤其是海军同志的努力，国防科工委改为戴帽下达“飞豹 ”飞机研制费。从1984年开始到1987年每年约为×××万元，但总预算经费已近用完。
据财务部门统计，费用超支会很大，当时国防科工委、海军领导表示接受不了，有人讲难以干下去，拿不出那么多 钱。这时我们只能是努力作工作，设法压减经费；各有关的机关同志都要执行，我当然是责无旁贷要牵头进行。经 国防科工委科技部六局、海装、航空工业部机关同志前后一年多的工作，即反复调查摸底、算帐、讨价还价，硬给 所、院、厂定指标，压减经费幅度很大。1988年2月由海军装备部与西安飞机设计所、西飞公司、试飞院、西 安发动机公司正式签了合同，机载成品、材料、工艺等项经费也切了块。同年在完成了上天前保证飞行安全的大型 试验后，年底实现了首飞。
经费方面算平稳过了两年。但后四架机尚未出厂，在1990年末1991年初，当时除试飞院外，各厂、所又有 经费严重超支问题；其背景是物价猛涨，各方面工作虽然都照常进行，但作为主管机关工作上增加了很多困难，一 时又成为老大难的关键问题。
要再给厂、所、院增加必不可少的经费指标；为使上下各方都能接受，我们是分项进行初估的。还有1991年4 月海装在上海开会研究“飞豹”原型机定型装备部队时，尚需改进后设备舱、增加载油量、满足三防要求以及军械 方面的一些改进，海军上报申请了一些经费；后又把先行开展工作但未定装机的平显、惯导列为正式装机项目，这 些还要做工作必须增加钱。把上述各项都计在内，国防科工委最后增加了一笔经费。飞机除可靠性试验研究是另拨 专款外，直到飞机设计定型，总的研制费做到了较好的控制。
关于经费，还得讲讲合同制问题。我国从计划经济走上市场经济，军品研制费同时从拨款制走向合同制。20余年 来国家改革开放很成功，极大的加速发展了国民经济；但是军品改为合同制，我认为还有很多工作要做，要进一步 研究解决。
“飞豹”飞机是我国第一代歼击机轰炸机，机上的电子设备还是比较多的，系统比较复杂；特别是某型空舰导弹火 控系统，设备是国内自行研制，系统配套关系多，有多功能雷达、空舰导弹指挥仪、多普勒导航系统、航姿系统、 大气数据计算机、飞控计算机等，技术难度大。当总设计师陈一坚同志提出要用轰一5飞机改装为“飞豹”某型空 舰导弹火控系统试验机时，我们在国防科工委招待所召开专题会进行研讨。
设计所同志认为，有专用试验机可提早进行系统试验，对问题早发现早改进，增大技术上的可靠性，缩短飞机的研 制周期；需要解决的问题是：要用×××万元，时间2～3年，请海军提供一架能飞行的轰一5飞机。这里的问题 一是技术上是否可行？总师组织过论证，国外确已有先例；到会同志都认为，在我们国内虽未干过，但也是可行的 ；二是轰一5飞机从那来？海军同志当即表示能解决，三是经费，我当即电话请示，主管的高镇宁副部长表示支持 ；四是时间，进度要快，要真正起到先走一步试验机的作用；五是试验机的改装厂和改装试验的组织工作。对第一 、二、三个问题都有了解决方案。
我主持了这个近50人的会，大家非常齐心，都支持干；报国防科工委后很快得到批准，在海军李景副司令大力支 持下，所提问题很快都得到了解决。飞机是从海航部队抽调，在海军上海维修厂改装；进行中困难比较大的是火控 系统新的配套设备一时难以提供，进度一拖再拖，实际上是地面试验件装上了飞行试验机。进度是从1984年开 始直到1988年完成飞行试验任务，跨越五个年头，实际用了三年多时间，比较好的完成了计划，基本上达到了 预期目标。在摸索工作中费了些劲，但在我国新机研制中，用老飞机改做新技术的试验机还是首创。
我国在歼7、歼8飞机研制以及后来各种改型中都建有操纵系统模拟台，主要是用于系统的间隙、惯性和磨擦力的 检查、测量和调整，可以使驾驶员感受杆力的大小，但对驾驶技术方面无法提供益处。而国外在民机和军机方面都 广泛发展飞行模拟器，以有效的训练飞行员，缩短空中飞行训练时间。我在国外参观过这种设备，也上去体验过。 我主张像“飞豹”·这种完全自行设计的新机应有专用的飞行模拟器，供设计和试飞员用。首先是给首席试飞员感 受飞机特性，以保证飞机设计好和首飞安全第二为培养试飞员减少空中飞行时间。这是我看资料和国外参观形成的 思路，因此在“飞豹”研制过程中，对试飞院的飞行模拟试验室就特别重视。
在1984～1985年，我每年几次到阎良都要听取一下这方面的汇报，支持引进模拟器液压控制系统，组织了 同北航合作研制视景系统的论证、讨论，这大约是在1985年正式下文上马的。虽然在研制过程中碰到一些技术 问题，尤其北航视景系统的进度一拖再拖，但这个飞行模拟器在飞机研制中还是较好的发挥了作用。这里可以做些 统计，投资大约是XXX万元，利用率缺统计数据，总的感到经济效益很好，当然更主要的是保证首飞以及后来的 飞行安全。在中国航空史上，开发使用飞行模拟器，“飞豹”飞机是首创。
“飞豹”飞机在选择配套项目时是上世纪70年代末，当时用于飞行参数显示的平显和飞行导航用的惯导在先进国 家已经装机使用了，而我国则是刚刚起步。有关研制单位有些研究基础，积极性很高，大力向主机所推荐；型号总 设计师、总设计师单位的同志、用户即军方也有愿望，但在技术上，尤其是根据歼8等飞机的研制经验，新机不能 上太多太新的配套成品，否则将有可能拖住整机的研制工作。也就在这种背景下，经过研究一致同意采用两条腿走 路。飞机第一步选用技术成熟的光学瞄准和210多普勒导航系统，而平显、惯导也立即开展研制工作，并同主机 所签技术协议和经济合同。
实际上我国的平显、惯导设备在引进一些技术的基础上发展很快，到1989和1990年，歼7改的飞机和歼8 Ⅱ的受油机都用上了平显惯导，也就是为“飞豹”备用的563惯导设备；此时军方(即海军)要求“飞豹”装平 显、惯导，并将此做为1990年第三次现场办公会的正式议题。当时总设计师担心进度跟不上，系统试验多，怕 影响飞机定型；但现场办公会考虑技术的发展仍定要装机，答应如进度实有困难，可暂不做为定型考核项目。我认 为决定正确，全力贯彻。但后来碰到不少预计不到的事： 第一是与某型空舰导弹火控系统技术协调难。航天工业部三院认定，原和上海615所研制的210多普勒导航系 统协调精度能满足导弹的要求，而563惯导没协调过，误差大精度不够；会上争得面红耳赤，就剩拒绝进行协调 的话尚未出口，这是碰到的第一大难题；
样发射某型空航导弹时就没有考核到装563惯导的火控系统，以致于后来出现没有一架飞机是既打炮、打空空导 弹、投炸弹又发射空舰导弹等一系列武器的完整试验机；这些确实是因为变化多，考虑欠周到，在技术上走了弯路 ；
第四，在飞机上正式用惯导后，210多普勒导航系统研制多年达到了设计技术指标，该怎么安排？合理讲应给6 15所做适当经济补尝，但这在中国制度很不健全的情况下是不可能的。以上这些过去基本都是运用行政手段，反 复协调、说服，通过适当增加试验项目，再给一些经费解决的，这里行政手段是起主导作用的。但做为科技管理， 总设计师系统要总结经验，不能埋怨变化多。实际上在十多年的研制过程中，对比“飞豹”与国外飞机研制过程中 的变化，军方所提新要求并不算多，关键是我们经验不足所致。
“飞豹”飞机立项是1977年2月，选用的发动机是1975年12月签合同从英国引进的MK一202斯贝， 当时购买了50台整机以及全套技术资料和生产权；西安发动机公司在英国人协助下，于1980年试制成功国产 斯贝并拿到英国做发动机台架实验合格。这对新飞机研制的条件非常好，是得天独厚的，真是伸手可得；不仅发动 机是现成的，而且可靠性高，这在飞机定型试飞中充分发挥了其优越性。然而飞机定型并生产10余架后，到20 00年出新机就没有发动机用了(国产化的斯贝——涡扇9——暂时还难以提供)，飞机面临可能停产的局面，令 人痛心。
1。在抓“飞豹”飞机研制的同时，对发动机抓的十分不力，没有在已有的基础上加速国产化研制工作。如能在1 979年下半年分两批装出4台发动机，并于1980年2到5月在英国试车合格后接着干下去，既省钱又抢了时 间，还能成为推动飞机研制的动力。这实际是自身断线，完全是领导者决策的失误；
2。远在80年代末期，国防科工委谢光副主任提出对斯贝发动机是“一用、二修、三化、四改”的方针，当时大 家都拥护，努力工作。在1990年12月第四次现场办公会定部分国产化工作从1991年开始干，但由于经费 不足，进度一拖再施，使全面国产化工作也推迟了。现在看当时对发动机下的决心不大，如能果断决策进行全面国 产化，是能扭转今天的被动局面的。四平八稳、循序渐进的安排，使一些人对斯贝全面国产化的信心减弱，对“飞 豹”发动机下一步发展犹豫观望。空军对有关部门热火朝天的飞机研制工作迟迟不提要求，按兵不动，就是看着发 动机怎么办？有人说。当时没有钱。实际空军列装就会有钱投进来；
3。有歧见的干扰。斯贝发动机是“飞豹”飞机国际、国内条件最佳的配套项目，发动机本身是有些落后，但与飞 机很匹配，保证了飞机总体优越性，尤其是低空作战性能好，有些人想换高性能发动机，实际都是不切实际的。可 是在军方和工业部门内都有些人反对斯贝，强调这个发动机人所共知的落后面，也阻碍了早日拿到国产化的发动机 ；
4。我们对斯贝国产化工作的复杂性估计不足，认为已有“很好”条件，容易抓上去，事实是碰了壁。总结过去的 经验，现在要排除干扰下大力气抓斯贝发动机国产化，争取两年内拿到手。“飞豹”经进一步改进后是空、海军新 一代装备，能用上20年。
斯贝发动机可能阻碍飞机批生产，影响部队装备，做为机关主管这个项目研制工作的我早已预知，并不断向各有关 方面汇报反映，写了专题材料。此外还拟做两手准备，既尽力促成国内生产也不放弃国外的途径。在1991年5 月去英国罗罗公司探讨超一7飞机动力RB一199时，有关人员向我们介绍了英国空军退役的F一4H飞机装的 斯贝发动机的有关事宜，英国人说他们通过检修分别给出300、500、700d',时剩余寿命这点吸引了我 ，认为可以考虑引进这些发动机。我得到王昂副部长的支持，与英国人就此谈了好几年，但由于某些人员反对而未 能实现。至今我仍然认为，这条路是补救“飞豹”飞机生产不断线的虽不高明但切实可行的办法。
这里再强调一下，在1993年国防科工委第七次现场办公会时，由我起草，以国防科工委张国治局长、海装飞机 部徐甘泉部长我们三个人的名义作了“统一认识，狠抓‘飞豹’定型，加速装备部队工作”的书面发言，其中提出 发动机国产化是当务之急！可是这个问题一直未能得到较好的解决，以致新生产的飞机已无发动机可用了，令人遗 憾。
在发动机问题中，还有一件事令人难忘。1994年初空军副司令员林虎建议：先装前苏联米格一29飞机的PⅡ 一33发动机，以后再换装由624所研制的中等推力涡扇发动机。该建议得到中央军委副主席刘华清的同意，后 来因海军和工业部门都认为行不通，由总参装备部于1994年7月25日_27日在南苑空军后勤部招待所开专 家会讨论“飞豹”飞机改装中推发动机问题。会上海军、军科院、国防大学的教授专家们都一至认为：“飞豹”飞 机总重量吨位适当，双人、双发、中等展弦比、中等后掠角布局很好，作为能对地、对海、对空作战，载弹量大， 功能多的超音速歼击轰炸机很适合未来实战要求；要求尽快、尽早、尽量多生产这种装备可靠性高、低空胜能好的 斯贝发动机的飞机。重新研制的中推周期可能要很长，所以实在行不通，此事也就作罢。关于过渡用前苏联米格一 29的PⅡ一33发动机问题，会上也说一下，主要是推力小不能保证飞机的性能，且改起来也不是那么容易，改 后的试验工作也很多，需要重新进行定型试飞，仅此也就无法再多论证了。为了扭转这种混乱局面，海军和工业部 门主管人员所进行的工作是千言万语说不尽的，最终领导上同意仍装斯贝发动机，飞豹“换发”的风波就算平息了 。
“飞豹”装稳定、可靠性好的斯贝发动机，保证了9年1600架次定型试飞，以及后来到部队试用并承担“99 10”任务都证明是成功的；坚持不换发的大方向已经并且将继续证明是对的。总之，没有成熟的发动机是不能换 的。由于大方向定了，在飞机研制、生产不断发展，急需更多发动机的时候，还是下决心购买了英国退役的“堪用 ”、“堪修”的斯贝发动机近80台，实际能使用的发动机55台，以应国产涡扇9没出来前的急需。
“飞豹”飞机装的是由电子工业部兰州781厂于80年代初研制的对空、对地、对海多功能火控雷达，其设计性 能满足飞机的战术技术要求；研制进度的时间略显紧张，但基本能跟上雷达试验机的装机试飞要求。然而1991 年在雷达调整试飞中发现雷达性能很差，达不到设计指标；故障率高，无法转入定型试飞，主要问题是：1。空空 状态发现目标不连续，截获跟踪不稳2。空地状态对地面目标分辨不清，发现困难；3。雷达整机可靠性差，故障 率高。
鉴于雷达无法进行正常试飞，有人提出换雷达；一说立即研制新雷达，对此都认为难度高，可能性不大；再是从国 外引进，其中主要是想买俄罗斯米格-29飞机装的“甲虫”雷达。应当说这也是可探索的一个路子，当时航空航天部林宗棠部长正式向中央军委刘华清 副主席汇报过，并要求我们做工作弄清可行性。那时我在阎良试飞院，是毛德华局长亲自打电话给我的，我在电话 里说明了自己的担心，怕弄不好将危及“飞豹”试飞以及整个研制工作。随后与有关同志商讨，当时有人认为买也 不是拿来就能用。经与俄方接触和论证，最陕也需三年才可能拿到装机的雷达，以后还要解决批生产问题；这条路 还可能有政治、经济、技术等方面的风险，一旦拖下去就有中途断送“飞豹”飞机的风险。经和海军、电子部、7 81厂同志研究，一致主张改进现有雷达。1992年10月间在海装开会，北京各有关机关同志都同意由781 厂、西安飞机设计所等单位工程技术人员提出的对232H多功能雷达进行技术攻关的方案，主要包 括：
在1992年12月国防科工委于阎良召开的“飞豹”第六次现场办公会上，听取汇报后国防科工委谢光副主任指 示：“自古华山一条路，飞机定型试飞，原装232H雷达不变，同意对雷达所存在的问题进行技术攻关”，并落 实了经费。攻关更改设计加上可靠性工作共用约×X×万元。“飞豹”之所以有今天，与关键问题的决策正确和技 术攻关的成功是分不开的，应予总结。就是“飞豹”飞机将来换装新的更好的雷达，232H雷达的历史作用也是 应予肯定的。
员、军代表以及有关部门和军方机关均派代表参加，要逐项审查是否具备放飞条件，要保证飞行安全，主管有关人 员要在审查单上签字。工作十分细致具体，主机所、厂基本上全体动员，分头组织参加各项审查工作。而我作为保 证总设计师系统工作的行政主管人员，操心的事基本上是协调分岐意见和“扯皮”问题。
1。关于装“黑匣子”问题。“黑匣子”(飞行事故记录仪)成为放飞的难题，因为以往新机首飞均没装，飞豹第 一架机也没装，但在临要首飞时试飞院有同志提出要装。装“黑匣子”要对飞机进行改装，需要时间，总师系统认 为就在机场上空飞一个航行起落，基本上都在视线范围内，装“黑匣子”的意义不大。有了分岐意见，就分头向上 汇报。以往型号都集中在军机局管，而研制“飞豹”时部机关又成立了试飞局；代表试飞局的李安屏局长同意试飞 院意见，而代表行政指挥系统军机局的我则是和总师意见一致，显然这是机关组织机构很不顺造成的，使系统工程 系统不了。这时主管这两个局的王昂副部长又由于某种原因没联系上，真的急死人。后经反复协调，决定简化黑匣 子装机状态，主要是少测飞行参数，很快完成了飞机改装。当飞机研制总指挥王昂副部长到闫良现场后，听过汇报 ，在飞机总设计师陈一坚、总工程师易志斌签字后批准放飞；首席试飞员是空军试飞团黄炳新团长，后座领航员是 邢彦才领航主任，地面指挥彭迪宇副团长。
以往的新机首飞都是集中一次评审，在各专业评审组中就有一个场务、机务、飞行条件评审，在首飞时再按正常程 序签字放飞。而在“飞豹”沿用以往办法评审后，试飞局又邀请组织一帮人单独评审一次，这完全是重复机构造成 的重复劳动，工作复杂化。
2。发动机放飞问题。所有配套成品承制厂、所都认真负责的向评审组汇报，共同讨论通过后签字；而对斯贝发动 机，西安发动机公司在放飞时不想签字，理由是斯贝发动机不是他们生产的(英国罗·罗公司生产)。实际上发动 机引进一直是由该厂负责吃透技术，库存发动机出库检查、试车均由该厂进行，所需经费是“飞豹”研制费出，并 给出合格证，这些事都是有合同的。但当时厂方到会的负责人却不想在放飞单上签字，此时大家又找到我这个机关 负责人，反复做工作、讲道理，当然也有批评，最后还是签字了。其经验是研制中的技术协议、合同要把方方面面 的事考虑到，项项写清楚，都要有负责人，不能简单化。
3。首飞着陆时前轮发生摆振。前三点式起落架的飞机，前轮摆振是很危险的，所以首飞前安排有专项地面试验， 然而结果还是出了问题，飞机摆振得很厉害。飞行员讲：座舱仪表板摆的看不清字，好似要散架子，掉了好几块表 ，飞机仅差20余米即冲出跑道，停下后检查发现雷达安装支架都振坏了。事故出人意料，确有后怕！经验是首飞 前的地面试验模拟的不够真实，未能早发现问题；还好原因很快找到、很快修复，对飞机研制没有造成大的影响， 不过这件事确应成为历史性的教训。首飞的安全问题一定要慎之又慎！
“飞豹”飞机转入试飞工作后大小故障比较多，其中令人最为头疼的是飞机垂尾跨音速飞行振动。据我跟飞记录统 计，从1989年11月17日81号飞机第一次振坏垂尾翼尖，到1992年8月25日83号飞机由于激烈振 动飞掉方向舵的两年多时间中，用于定型试飞的5架飞机除一架因出厂晚飞的少，没有出现过外，其余4架先后发 生过
最初对振动性质、产生原因有多种说法，如认为原来翼尖上的天线提供振源，垂尾尖部结构弱造成振动，还有人说 主要是垂尾弯曲刚度弱产生的。对此都相应采取了措施，当时似乎好些，但不久又出现振动，而且有加重趋势，问 题并没解决。故根据飞机总设计师陈一坚的要求，经中国试飞研究院张克荣副院长同意，由他们在83号飞机垂尾 靠近方向舵前缘的根部和尖部安装了振动传感器，以实测空中的振型和量级，由副院长、试飞英雄黄炳新驾驶做测 振试飞。
1992年8月25日上午，飞机升空后在高度3000米高度、马赫数0.8、0.85、0.9时均无振动， 飞行正常。飞机升到高度8000米时，0.8M、0.85M没有振动，当表速加大到800千米/小时约1.04M时飞机振动明显。然后收油门减速下降，到高度5000米时，0.8M、0.9M平飞正常， 加速到1.03M飞机振动不可接受。继续增速后，随M数增加振动加剧，1.07M、1.09M时飞机座舱内 仪表指针摆动看不清，飞机似散架。收油门时飞机尾部发出一响声，飞机不振，很平静，此时方向舵已撕掉，是凭 借驾驶员高超飞行技术安全平稳飞回机场的，创下了飞机无方向舵安全着陆的奇迹。经取出所测数据进行分析，认 定是典型的方向舵嗡鸣(是一种破坏性振动形式)。
为进一步分析清楚产生嗡鸣的原因及解决办法，决定邀请阎良所、厂／院外专家10人进行深入讨论。1992年 9月1日开会，2日结束。专家们，尤其是西工大沙伯楠教授在阐述嗡鸣振动形式的同时，讲清了“飞豹”飞机主 要是方向舵设计扭转刚度不足，重点还是转轴太弱，受力后弹性变形大，在飞跨音速时舵面有弹性变形，导致激波 前后移动产生“嗡鸣”。过去有时翼尖先坏而方向舵没坏，即主要是翼尖局部刚度弱，产生强迫振动所致。会议统 一了认识，商定了解决办法。原航空航天部林宗棠部长当时正在阎良检查工作，专题听取了专家组的汇报，对专家 们的辛勤劳动表示了感谢。所、厂、院的同志，尤其是主管领导对这次会议非常重视，认真对待所提建议，采取了 既快又好的措施，使飞机垂尾跨音速飞行振动的“老大难”问题得到撤底解决；这对“飞豹”飞机是一件十分重要 的大事，就是以后设计新机也是应当记取的经验教训。
众所周知，“飞豹”飞机定型试飞工作量大时间长，5架机82个试飞项目，试飞9年1603架次；项目多且复 杂，如火控系统要考核对空、对地、对海功能，使用的测试设备有光测、遥测，且有相当数量实弹检查；新成品也 多，176项大多数都要在飞行中考核，除在其它飞机上(如歼7Ⅱ、歼教6、歼6、运5、“呼唤”、轰5)飞 过305架次外，其余主要新成品都要在本机上飞，如雷达、惯导、210多普勒导航系统、导弹火控系统、发射 某型研究试验弹、打定型弹等。海上试验我先后去过4次，每次去我都要在那跟飞或是现场办公，深感所、厂尤其 是试飞院在异地飞行的组织工作上是很出色的，组织的很有条理。
对新机定型试飞，我多少算有一点经验；因在1985～1987年间曾担任过歼8Ⅱ、歼7Ⅲ、歼教7三机定型 试飞副总指挥(总指挥是王昂副部长)，基本上是常年驻阎良试飞院。歼7Ⅲ试飞中一侧起落架多次出现空中放不 下来的情况，空中连续一两次放都放不下来，时间持续3、4个月；有一回空中把开关重复几次收放都未成功，地 面已准备迫降，经最后努力才放成功的。这个经历使我对新机试飞风险之大已有体会。
歼8Ⅱ、歼教7在试飞中基本上没出过大的险隋，进展比较顺利。但“飞豹”则不然，从1989年开始调整定型 试飞以来，一直到1995年底的7年中，参加这项工作的大多数人，包括我，始终都处于十分紧张状态。原因是 ：1。全新飞机新成品多，经验不足，使人们“先天”有担心；2。最初故障比较多，漏油、漏水、漏气、漏电( 电磁干扰)、掉铆钉、蒙皮裂纹等故障在开飞的头两年，即1989～1990年间常出现。一个飞行日能拉出的 飞机有限，到了待飞场地，原单架机安排的2～3架次飞行任务大多数飞不完，仅能完成30～40%，主要是出 故障多。老完不成飞行计划令人苦恼1 3。险隋不断，主起落架C支点(根部一固定点)裂纹、空中一侧襟翼自动放下、接连两次60mm粗的燃油主导 管接头在空中脱开大量漏油；飞机尾部振动导致振裂振坏垂尾、腹鳍、方向舵多起，以致最后把方向舵飞掉；还有 几次着陆时从飞行跑道侧面冲出落在泥地里，在阎良、兴城都发生过。幸好在我任职的7年中未出过等级飞行事故 ，但精神确实始终是处于十分紧张的状态。 试飞中，先后发生两起燃油主导管接头空中脱开，飞机返场着陆时尾部白雾一片，很快漏掉两吨多油，在跑道上停 下时机上油已很少；幸而飞行员发现的早及时返航，否则，几分钟之差就肯定会把飞机掉在场外，将酿成大祸。还 有在雨后飞行中，因继电器漏水，空中电路自动接通，使飞机一侧襟翼自动放下；当时飞行高度仅几百米，飞机突 然滚动，真是十分危险。回想起来，真令人胆战心惊！追述这些，就是要强调再三，新机试飞一定要千方百计加强 组织管理，认真把好质量安全关。
把后来打定型弹和补飞惯导的两年计在内，试飞是到1997年结束，共计9年；这种情况令人深思，时间有些太 长了。以飞行架次算，本机加它机共飞行1908架次，每年每架机实飞的很少；飞行登记表记出1989～19 91年3ff间基本上是训练飞行员、排故和调整试飞。第五架85号机是1991年11月5日才交到试飞院， 而后边的1996和1997两年主要是某型弹定型和个别的补飞项目，即投挂弹架和惯导补飞，仅几架次的任务 。飞机的定型试飞主要是在1992～1995年中完成的，其中也有一些排故试飞。把前3年和后两年相加，5 年中的事压缩在2～3年内完成，完全是可能的，这实为产品质量和组织管理工作有误。这当然不是哪一家、哪几 个人的事，而是要从技术、生产质量、组织管理全面加强做起，不过我认为最重要的还是组织管理工 作。
“飞豹”海上试飞是工业部门与军方进行的合作，联合试验。合作不差，矛盾不少。 1。关于选址。“飞豹”飞机要转场到辽东湾海上试飞的题目在80年代初就提出来了.1985年或是1986 年。原国防科工委六局、海装飞机部和航空工业部重点新机办有关负责人会同主管同志联合到山海关、兴城调查， 我是主要成员之一。因挂空舰导弹的轰6改是在山海关海航部队同民航共用的机场飞的，原航天部三院同志熟，且 这个机场有弹库，因此主张沿用已有条件飞“飞豹”，航空部门的同志也有此想法。但山海关要修跑道，更主要的 是海军李景副司令亲自调查过，主张放兴城海军飞行学院的机场。
当时的航空航天部以及国防科工委六局、海装飞机部的同志都想沿用轰6改的路走下去，强调兴城没有弹库、没有 机库，在山海关各方面工作都顺一些；经过几次调查，企图说明修跑道和试飞时间可错开。“飞豹”海上试飞场地 放山海关条件最好，但因李景副司令已定放兴城，无法改变。当时我们猜测，首长可能是想通过新机试飞把兴城机 场建设带起来。事实证明放兴城是合适的，因“飞豹”兴城海上试飞在海上飞的科目多，时间长(前后达4年之久 )，放在作战部队和民航共用的山海关机场是欠妥的；通过新机试飞带动一下兴城机场的建设，作为工业部门要予 以支持。 2。试飞院与海军试验基地分工难。试飞院是从事航空产品飞行试验和鉴定的单位，认为应由他们负责飞机上装的 某型空舰导弹火控系统的试飞、鉴定以及使用的测试设备；而海军试验基地的任务是试验鉴定舰船和海上使用的武 器(包括空舰导弹)，弹的命中精度又离不开火控系统，故试验基地认为也应由他们负责，机上应装他们的测试设 备。仅此先后开过四五次会，用了几年时间一直扯不清，因争论多彼此都难说服对方。后来国防科工委发一原则文 件，是按各自理解分头做工作。在上级机关帮助及相互步步协调下，逐步磨合着前进。机上的测试设备主要是试飞 院的，试验基地也装了个别设备。后来在机上和地面，为海军试验基地地面雷达和经纬仪的遥测、光测数据和三院 机上指挥仪的数据使用也有矛盾，曾有过互不提供资料，影响工作的事。
3、空域、海域使用难。试验工作量大、牵涉面广，关系十分复杂；技术问题多，受制约条件更多。要完成一个科 研试飞架次，首先机上设备要好，常出故障的是雷达、电台。其次地面雷达、经纬仪等遥测光测要好，这点难度大 ，因为设备太老旧，多台光测经纬仪常是文齐武不齐。第三天气要好，这个地区有的季节雨多雾大能见度差，影响 试验效果；且海浪不能大，否则靶船出不去；第四海域难清理，过往船只和渔船特别多；第五空域要能调开，同一 块空域的锦州、山海关、绥中、兴城等机场的飞机都要飞，只好排队。海军试验基地的任务也常有冲突，总之麻烦 的事很多，工作难度很大。
上述种种，“飞豹”这个型号是步步协调，逐步磨合走过来了，用的时间很长。下一步改型机应设法改进试验办法 ，否则可能更难，因为还要牵涉空军、空军试验基地和更多的有关单位。为此建议以后对这种大型试验现场，要组 织有实权的协调、调度机构，否则要进度快是很难的。
飞机的可靠性、维护性(R、M)问题 飞机的可靠性、维护性(R、M)好坏，是该项装备生死存亡的重要问题之一，是部队是否欢迎和接受这种飞机致 关重要的大事；因为可靠性、维护性差的飞机很难保证按时执行作战命令，完成战斗使命。 “飞豹”飞机设计始于70年代末、80年代初，那时我们的设计队伍对飞机可靠性知之甚少，在这方面没有专门 考虑；好在1990年或是还迟一点，国防科工委拨了一笔款用于现役和在研机种提高可靠性、维护性工作。就是 从那时开始，把飞机关键零件和所有新成品附件以及操纵、液压、燃油、飞控、火控等各系统全面进行了可靠性补 课，做了大量试验研究，改进所有薄弱环节。把原使用寿命仅2～3年、200～300飞行小时，都提高到8年 700小时，增加2～3倍。仅用3～4年时间，约×X X×万元，就完成了这样重大的项目，成绩巨大。 在维护性方面也做了大量的工作。海航曾在1990、1991年组织三次“飞豹”飞机维护f生调研、审查，总 计提出224条意见(第一次176条，第二次9条，第三次39条)，经共同研究在试制批和1批上进行更改的 为171条；其余的53条，经反复研究取得一致意见，仍采用原设计状态。各有关承担研制任务的所、厂、院对 使用部门所提要求，所持态度体现了全心全意、认真负责的精神，这些是“飞豹”今天很受部队喜爱 的重要方面。
在山海关飞“9910”任务(建国50年阅兵)的飞机，10架机一天飞70架次，出勤率很高；在新机初到部 队使用时就有这样的成绩，我认为是国际水平的，这确实应归功于可靠性和维护性补课。这里要特别强调指出，国 防科工委进行可靠性、维护性补课的决策完全正确，各级主管部门认真抓是有功的。这里充分体现了在新机研制中 组织管理工作的重要性。
“飞豹”飞机从1988年12月14日首飞，到1990年12月第四次国防科工委现场办公会时已过两个整年 ，有在飞行的飞机3架，尚有飞行试验机2架一定能在1991年出厂交试飞院，这时考虑：1。飞机虽飞的不多 ，但认为不会出现颠覆性的大问题；2。生产新机从备料、订购装机成品(新的176项)到出飞机，最快3年， 一般则要4年才能把飞机交到部队，故西飞公司总经理邵国斌向现场办公会领导提出，请会议同意公司做一批飞机 的生产准备，进行备料投料工作。当时海军领导和总参同志没表意见，国防科工委谢光副主任对一批飞机未明确何 时投料，但提出了1994年要有飞机交付部队。这就是说，何时投料，一切由工厂定。邵总经理会后找我商量时 表示，宁可担风险也要做备料投料工作。我以机关个人意见，建议再看一年，可先做软件方面的计划安排。关于1 994年要有飞机交给部队的要求，能交新的当然好，如果做不到，交2～3架完成定型试飞任务的试制批飞机也 好，也应算有飞机交部队了。
实际上第五架飞机到1991年11月才交到试飞院。在1991年6月开第五次现场办公会时，定型试飞进展不 快，主要还是进行调整和排故试飞，定型科目飞的很少，就没有讲新机投产问题。直到1992年末第六次现场办 公会再次提出，首长仍讲活话；但这时工厂决心下了，实际行动是1993年，3年后1995年即出了要交付部 队的新飞机。国防科工委谢光副主任在1994年要有飞机交付部队的要求也实现了，即经过1 992、1993年两次现场办公会，对试制批飞机是否要交付部队、交几架、交哪几架的讨论酝酿，对交不交的 问题，总参同志讲话要交。至于交几架，工业部门意见3架，海军主张2架，国防科工委首长定交2架。哪2架也 有争论，后来海军首长讲，按工业部门意见，交先飞完定型试飞科目的81和82号两架机；交部队前由工厂进行 一次大检修，由部队付这部分钱，成本费由科研费消帐。这两架机1994年下半年从试飞院返回西飞公司开始进 行检修、喷漆等，于1995年到了部队。
这一论述主要是想说明：1。工业部门的所厂院对国防科工委、军方首长的讲话要求是严肃认真的，千方百计进行 落实；2。有些事要有预见，早酝酿、早做工作，基本上可实现预定计划；什么事没有必要的思想上、组织上的工 作准备，很难达到预期目的。还要强调一句，有的事，工厂还是要有点胆量，必要时还得敢担一点风险。在一批投 产问题上，工厂是冒着风险干的，’抢了一点时间，其价值难以估量！它很可能是为承担“9910”任务打下了 基础，而“9910”任务在飞豹飞机发展史上将占有极其宝贵的一页。
“飞豹”飞机的定型试飞工作，1993年是高潮，一年飞行近500架次，效率高；加上前两年飞的，飞机基本 性能已飞完，达到设计指标要求，数据已拿到手。1993年末考虑，再经过1994年的试飞，飞机各系统、武 器、成品都可飞完，可以请航定办在年末召开飞机设计定型审查会，当时航定办同志口头答应予以安排。但到19 94年末，定型试飞工作进展很好，实现了所定计划，余下项目很少，但试飞报告却拿不出来，大量数据要整理， 写正式技术报告，很花时间；当时要求至少给半年，即要到1995年7～8月间才能完成，1994年的设想落 空。
1995年2月15～17日在西安阎良国防科工委召开了“飞豹”第八次现场办公会，当时飞机已飞行近150 0架次，除某型空舰导弹火控系统还要飞、弹还要打外，飞机性能和各系统功能都已飞完。会议商定1995年飞 机先走一步，进行设计定型审查，航定办也将其列入年度计划。在这一年中，我们工业部门先后邀请航定办同志、 军方海装及国防科工委机关同志六次去阎良检查，听取设计所、试飞院、工厂汇报，给予指导，提出要求，督促加 速工作。但到8～9月问，申请设计定型的报告尚未上报，定型试飞报告尚未完稿，故航定办同志反复强调：1。 一定要拿到试飞院的定型试飞报告；2。要拿到总师系统、海军和工业部门的设计定型审查申请报告；3。要海军 表明常规武器系统和某型空舰导弹武器系统是在两架机上试飞(前者85号，后者为84号机)，没有一架机是装 有全部武器综合在一起进行过试验，如何进行设计定型审查(这是一个漏洞，但总设计师、试飞副总师强调，定型 试飞大纲是经专家审查，航定办批的)；4。航定办还强调要全武器系统(指空舰导弹要先定型)设计定型审查， 对飞机要先走一步认为没文件(意思是国防科工委现场办公会纪要不行)。
这样一来，在1995年进行“飞豹”飞机设计定型审查工作又很难了。有人已失去信心，因为要是等打完某型定 型弹，再拿出弹的申请定型报告，是1997年或以后的事。但工业部门和海装主管人员在有关首长的支持下，没 失掉信心，可以说为此是跑断了腿。
总之1995年我们是在三条战线上抓工作：1。抓定型试飞收尾，这时特别强调飞行安全。2。抓设计、生产、 试飞总结报告。除70指和海型办在现场天天调度、周周开会，常发简报外，机关同志不断地到现场督促检查、提 要求、做批评，就这样进度还是一拖再拖，主要是工作量大、要求高、反复多。3。抓现有配套成品先行设计定型 工作。年初还有二级配套成品5～6项，如232H雷达、563惯导、622飞控、210多普勒导航系统等， 还有几项难度大的三类成品，主要是试飞中出的一些问题。这些确实也忙坏了航定办同志们，经过反复做工作，最 终得到解决。
工业部门机关的同志和海装飞机部的同志联合在一起做海航、航定办同志工作，反复组织到所、厂、院听取汇报， 使之了解更多的情况，阐明我们和现场办公会的意见。在这期间某型空舰导弹的试验弹(航空航天部三院设计研制 )帮了大忙，很争气；在10～11月间打了6发6中，证明弹和火控系统都很好(只是定型弹一时生产不出来) ，为飞机先进行设计定型审查创造了十分有利的条件。但当时航定办主任贺总路还是坚持，没有一架装完整全套武 器飞机的问题要有正式文件。
这里要说一下，海装的同志尤其是徐甘泉总师做了突出的贡献。他亲自出面向海军贺副司令汇报情况，请出贺副司 令员到海航做工作，最后是由海军向航定办出了正式文件，承认经从各方面邀请的专家讨论、评审各有关方面批准 的定型试飞大纲和其试飞的结果，同意按状态进行设计定型审查(以上为我所知大意)；这才落实了1995年1 2月在航定办主持下，在西安人民大厦完成第一次飞机设计定型审查，为交付飞机和批生产飞机创造了 条件。
从1986年决定集中力量先干条件较好的串座型，对空军要求的并座型暂时先开展课题研究以来，除主机所做些 课题论证研究外，很少有人过问此事。一方面是工作忙，有些顾此失彼；主要的还是空军也有人主张用串座，对并 座要求不那么强烈。
1988年10月27～30日，我随空军林虎副司令赴成都检查工程研制工作，有一天早晨陪林副司令在院内散 步，我汇报了“飞豹”研制进展情况，讲了年内定能首飞，请空军考虑使用问题。当时林副司令讲：1。串座还是 并座不是大问题，串座空军也可以用。2。当前主要问题是发动机，现在斯贝发用。2。当前主要问题是发动机， 现在斯贝发动机仅有那么几台，就能生产几架飞机，我们怎么好同海军争抢发动机昵？我说：海军也不仅要几架飞 机，发动机问题总是要解决，一定能解决的。林副司令当时讲：发动机这件事问题比较大，不是很好 解决的。
林虎副司令一席话说明：“飞豹”串座型飞机平台空军能接受，但对所用发动机十分不满意，不主张国产化从英国 引进的斯贝发动机。这里再一次说明，斯贝发动机一方面是促进“飞豹”研制的动力，其高可靠性保证了定型试飞 ；另一方面由于处理上的不果断，没早下决心国产化，也阻碍了“飞豹”飞机早日成为部队新一代装 备。
“飞豹”研制工作成功在望之际，从1992、1993年开始，西安飞机设计所组织力量针对空、海军新的要求 做改进型方案设计研究工作，多次向军方汇报请示；李洪毅所长亲自带队到空、海军机关、空一所和有关的论证单 位汇报并征求意见，当然每次也都要到原国防科工委、总参装备部和部、总公司机关汇报请示。据我所知一连进行 了4～5年，锲而不舍，精神可嘉。空海军机关同志也组织军内科研单位人员到闫良所、厂、院进行调研。如19 94年2月21日，我陪同空八所总师汪源明同志带有关专业人员到西安飞机设计所、西飞公司、试飞院调研空军 使用“飞豹”飞机问题。他主张主要改电子火控和武器，对飞机总体结构和发动机不宜变，这些主张都极利于早拿 到装备，适合中国国情，有利于加速改善我空军装备。但据说他们内部的争论焦点仍是发动机问题，有那么一些人 就是这个弯子转不过来。当然后来也有改多改少的分岐意见，使飞机改进发展工作拖长达6、7年之久，直到19 99年8月才算最后定下来。故我称之为令人痛心的遗憾事。《航空档案》杂志2009年第5期
A.Man..we need a translation of that article. This is an English language Chinese forum whereas we have members from all over the world.
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马承麟：原航空航天部军机司副司长，主管“飞豹”飞机研制工作，兼任飞机研制现场副总指挥，一 直到1995 年飞机基本型设计定型审查完。 “飞豹”飞机研制周期较长，上马时，是根据中国当时航空工业的实际能用的条件进行设计的；着眼于 战斗力观点 ，以满足实战需求为目标。并“与时俱进”地不断改用可能用上的新技术新设备，走过了一个风雨历 程。“飞豹” 已是我空海军一代重要武器装备，笔者着重写了亲身经历的坎坷事。
“飞豹”即FBC-1，是我国航空工业集团公司西安飞机设计所设计、西安飞机公司制造、中国试飞研究院完成定型试飞 的歼击轰炸 机，是填补我国空军、海军航空兵装备空白的机种。1998年8月由国务院、中央军委定型委员会 批准设计定型 并装备部队。在98珠海航展上，“飞豹”已向世界公布“解密”，进行了飞行表演，当时广播电视 、报纸都做了 大量报道。1999年10月1日建国五十周年大庆，飞豹飞过天空门上空，接受中央首长检阅。
Li Wing sky - the development of the whole process of Feibao experience
Ma承麟: Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics former deputy director of military aircraft, in charge of "Flying Leopard" aircraft development work, part-time deputy director of aircraft development at the scene until 1995, the basic design of aircraft type a review. "Feibao" aircraft development cycle is longer, when implemented, is based on the Chinese aviation industry at the time of the actual conditions can be designed; focus on the combat effectiveness of point of view, to meet the actual needs of the target. And "keeping up with the times" to constantly switch to new technologies may be used new equipment, we have gone through a stormy course. "Flying Leopard" is my generation, an important naval and air weapons and equipment, I focus on the personal experience to write the rough things.
"Flying Leopard" that the FBC-1, is China's Aviation Industry Group Design by Xi'an Aircraft Design, Xi'an Aircraft Company, the Chinese Academy of completed test flight of fighter-bomber type, is to fill China's Air Force, Naval Air Force aircraft and equipment blank. In August 1998 by the State Council, Central Military Commission approved the design of stereotypes stereotypes and the armed forces. Zhuhai Air Show in 98, the "Flying Leopard" announced to the world, "decrypt", for the air show, when radio and television, newspapers have done a great deal of coverage. October 1, 1999 the golden jubilee of the founding of the PRC, Feibao door flew over the sky, the head of the Central Review.
"Flying Leopard" with two engines, two blocks before and after the system is multi-functional air-to-surface supersonic sea fighter-bomber. Annex finished loaded, weapons are my own design, manufacture, and its development through a very bumpy. From the State Council and Central Military Commission, the original leading group for the development of conventional equipment in February 1977 approved the development project in December 1995 to the aircraft design will be the first review of stereotypes through a total of 18 years. That is, the previous 5 years ago in 1981, as the country's economic difficulties, the development of the aircraft spread out across the board, is "continuous line capability", mainly for the overall program design, layout and testing of hair; and the aviation industry at the time the internal system changes, and also affected to a certain degree.
I was the aircraft in the aviation department of Ministry of Science and Technology Research Institute, on the models taking part in discussions and research. May 1982, I was appointed as the focus of the aviation industry, deputy director of the new machine to do (director is Zhang Jinbo Comrade), and any agencies involved in the development of responsible persons at the scene, deputy commander-in-chief; is to retire in 1991, is still the development of organs for返聘person in charge at the scene, deputy commander-in-chief; December 1995 until the first aircraft to review the design of stereotypes will only actually worked for 14 years. Basically, the aircraft took part in the whole process of development (only air-to-ship missile has not yet been carried out targeting stereotypes, it until 1998 formally approved the design of the entire weapon system type). In the "Flying Leopard" technology research and development is a lot of research, the following is just some of the things fresh.
Block and string-type with Block Type
In February 1977, the Central Military Commission, the original equipment, the development of conventional models of the Leading Group issued a research task, as active duty troops and equipment at the time H-5 of the follow-up machines, was empty navy shared "universal-type" aircraft. Xi'an Aircraft design requirements in accordance with the overall program design, the use of two systems, string-type seat cockpit layout, that is, the work of two aircrew in the former rear, the cockpit for the driver, rear for the pilot and is responsible for running weapons, fired. In 1977, the program opened in 1978 will be considered finished ACC. And then as the work unfolds gradually, step by step technical depth, and air, the Navy requested further specific contradiction out, mainly:
Air Force goal is to deal with large-scale clusters and armored fortifications in depth, but at this time has been very well-established anti-aircraft weapons, virtually no possibility of a breakthrough from the high altitude; therefore the Air Force's "Flying Leopard" need for a long period of low speed flight, but also to quickly and accurately bomb, meet this requirement between the two pilots with extremely important, so the Air Force would like to adopt two pilots side by side two-seater layout. The naval version of the "Flying Leopard" main task is to attack ships, and almost entirely completed by the instrument, which makes the back seat of the complexity of electronic devices, so the navy could hope to stay in the back seat of a weapons operator space as possible, that wish to adopt Serial two-seater layout; bomb after the fighter must have good performance.
Adjustment programs designed to further strengthen the performance fighter to the flight Mach number M increased from 1.5 to 1.7, now become the "Flying Leopard." August 1980, the General Staff, defense industrial-office requirements of the total issued units under the space division, the different requirements of the Navy, the aircraft of "a two-machine-type" design principles. 4 periods in 1982, Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Central Military Commission approved the original "Flying Leopard" as the focus of conventional weapons and equipment development projects, taking a step-type string of Block, in 1979 a wooden prototype of the review into the sampling design phase so the Air Force repeatedly requested) Block work to accelerate and type. December 1983, the aviation industry by the Vice Minister Gao Zhenning chaired and convened the Air Force-type seat layout program review, the report by the Xi'an Aircraft Design Program, made a number of technical problems. Block programs and body due to thick, resistance, resulting in maximum speed of less than combat skills indicator; and the ejection seat of life-saving programs have difficulties. At that time, U.S. F-111 fighter-bomber is a double and Block, aircrew ejection, together with the whole cabin with the pilot ejected. If we are ejected by the conventional way to drive after the jump master, after the jump has to pay staff members to jump seat of the danger of rocket fire; Qi jump to about flowering also considered, but the feasibility of a pilot to carry out the necessary research and technical research, To arrange a time, manpower and funding. At that time, the cockpit layout of the study there are a lot of contradiction:
1, string, and two-seat aircraft at the same time to work, first of all is human, financial lack the long pull front, fear will be to strike a balance, even if the two types of machines to develop the progress of a number of slightly raised, such as 1 to 2 years, it will be difficult To resolve this conflict.
2, the first test for the shape of five test machine, the machine test flight arrangements difficult task. Some people advocate and Block Type 3, Series Block Type 2, so that the result of many comrades are two types of aircraft flight cycles have lengthened, very harmful to the entire work. If an additional test for the shape of the frame number of the aircraft, then that is the availability of funds, manpower issues, there are technical risks, in the event of unexpected technical problems, it will lead to rework, and lost big.
3, but also special emphasis on the funding. At that time, the total cost above will be engaged in only one type have been very nervous at the same time two types of dry, I can not support.
In short, "a two-machine-type" string at the same time dry and block layout, a lot of contradictions and can not be developed to speed up the work. October 20, 1986 ~ 22, equipped with the General Staff Department of the original five, six CSTIND Comrade organization is responsible for Air Force, Navy and aviation industry as well as the host authorities, the factory in charge of comrades met to discuss "Flying Leopard" Air Force aircraft type problems, the work of two days and a consensus was reached. That is the basis of subjective and objective conditions at the time, can only be focused on human, material and financial resources to better the conditions of type string, Block 5 aircraft dry out as quickly as possible, as soon as possible to get hand-made experience. Block type of and more time being to carry out research first, to create conditions再干the right time. After the report of the discussions, formal approval by the Executive. "Feibao" aircraft development work in such an arrangement, history proved to be correct, and reflects the focus on the spiritual strength to fight a battle of annihilation. Block-type series and to resolve the problem of aircraft development can be solved first of all research projects.
Part three translation
Do everything possible to reduce the development of funding
1982 CSTIND by the original report, Comrade Deng Xiaoping's approval, with an increase in funding for the continued development of the state to suspend the "Flying Leopard" aircraft. That was the funding system, the military development of the annual fee of Defense to focus on the industrial sector; and then the Ministry of Aviation Industry Research also J 7, Yun-7, F 8, Y-8 and other models, the total funding remains inadequate. "Feibao" While out on the project, but very little money to give every year, it is difficult to speed up the work. After, the plant and the authorities in charge of personnel in the Department of Work and Section meetings at all levels, particularly the navy's efforts to replace Defense issued hats "Feibao" aircraft development costs. From 1984 to 1987 at about × × × million, but the total budget is nearly exhausted.
Financial sector, according to statistics, there would be significant cost overruns, when CSTIND, the Navy can not accept the leadership of that, some people say it is difficult to work, no so much money. At this time we can only make efforts to work towards funding压减; the relevant authorities in the implementation of comrades should, of course I was duty-bound to lead to. Defense Ministry of Science and Technology by the sixth inning, loaded the sea, aviation industry for more than a year before and after Comrade organs, namely, the repeated investigations, accounts, to bargain hard for the hospital, factory set targets and funding压减rate is Great. In February 1988 by the Navy Department and Xi'an Aircraft equipment design, XAC companies, test house, Xi'an engine officially signed, airborne products, materials, technology etc. also cut a piece of funds. The same year before the completion of God to ensure the safety of large-scale flight test, the end of the first.
Smooth operator funding over two years. However, after the machine has not been factory 4, early in 1991 the end of the year in 1990, when the test in addition to outside, the plants, by serious cost overruns and funding; the background is the price surge, although all aspects of its work as usual, but as the work of the competent authority add a lot of difficulties and at other times, they become a problem for the key issues.
June 1991, Defense held in Shaanxi Yanliang "Feibao" office will be at the scene just concluded, in accordance with the instructions of the leaders, six Defense Council, the sea and loaded aircraft comrades in charge of the industrial sector to discuss the internal ,
To give the plant, the House increased funding for essential indicators; to make the whole acceptable to all parties, we are to advance estimate of the breakdown. April 1991 was also installed in the Shanghai meeting of the sea research "Feibao" prototype stereotypes when the armed forces need to be improved cabin equipment to increase the fuel is contained to meet the three requirements, as well as prevention of some improvements in ordnance, the Navy reported to have applied for Some funds; after the first but no capacity to carry out the work of the head-up display, INS official capacity as a project, they also need to increase the money to do the work. To all of the above into account, the final CSTIND a funding increase. Experimental study on the reliability of the aircraft is in addition to other special funds, the shape until the aircraft design, with a total development cost to achieve a better control.
As regards funding, but also talk about the issue of contract. China from a planned economy to market economy, the military developed the system costs at the same time to the contract from the funding system. More than 20 years of reform and opening up a very successful country, which greatly accelerated the development of the national economy; replaced military contract, however, I think a lot of work to be done, it is necessary to further study to resolve.
In February 1988, "Flying Leopard" installed aircraft directly from the sea and the four Members, namely, by the Xi'an Aircraft Design, Xi'an Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation, flight Hospital, Xi'an Engine Corporation signed. With regard to reliability, and three defenses, as well as all Yeonsu
Is the host of the military units with the sign of a number of small contracts, it is flexible, it is also somewhat arbitrary stresses. Contract for the military and the industrial sector (including plants, schools) will benefit mainly责权利clear, can play all aspects of
Enthusiasm. In short, the contract must not only help to promote and ensure the development of the current work, but also conducive to the further development of the project.
Pioneered the use of a certain type of missile fire control testing machine
"Flying Leopard" is the first generation of aircraft and fighter bombers, the electronic equipment on board or more, the system is rather complicated; in particular a certain type of air-to-ship missile fire control system, equipment is developed, the relationship between systems, and there are multi-functional radar, air-to-ship missile director, Doppler navigation systems, aircraft position system, air data computer, flight control computers, technology was very difficult. When the chief architect of Comrade Chen Yijian use H-5 aircraft to be converted into a "Flying Leopard" of a certain type of air-to-ship missile fire control system test machine, we have CSTIND hostel will be held to discuss the topic.
Comrade design view, there is a dedicated test machine system can be an early test, the problem as early as improving early detection and increase the reliability of technology to shorten the aircraft development cycle; the need to address the question is: use × × × million, time 2 to 3 years, please provide the Navy to fly the H-1-5 aircraft. First, here's the question of whether it is technologically feasible? The total division organized a demonstration, there have been precedents abroad; to be comrades believe that not done in our home, but it is also feasible; Second, H-5 aircraft from the past? Navy comrades that can solve immediately, and the third is funding, I immediately call request, the competent Deputy Minister of the high-Zhenning support; Fourth, time, progress to be fast, taking a step to really play the role of testing machine; Fifth, test machine改装厂testing and modification work of the Organization. Of the first, second, three issues have solutions.
I presided over the nearly 50 people will be, we are very concerted efforts to support stem; reported CSTIND be approved soon after, in the navy deputy commander Li strong support of the issues raised have been resolved quickly. The aircraft is deployed from Naval Air Force, the Navy converted Shanghai plant maintenance; the difficulties are in the fire control system for the new equipment can not be provided, the progress of a delay, in fact, the test pieces is fitted with a flight test machine. Progress from 1984 until 1988 to complete flight test mission, across the five years, the actual time spent more than three years, completed a better plan, basically to achieve the desired objectives. In exploring the work of some strong charges, but in our research and development of new aircraft, aircraft with old technology to do new testing machine or the first.
The development of military aircraft flight simulator used for the first time
China's F-7, F-8 aircraft development as well as a variety of modifications are then built control system simulation platform, mainly for space systems, inertial and friction inspection, measurement and adjustment, the driver can feel the power stroke size, but drivers can not provide the benefits of technology. And foreign military aircraft in public areas and the extensive development of flight simulator, pilot training in order to effectively shorten the flight training time. I have visited abroad such equipment, but also get to experience too. I advocate such as "Flying Leopard" This completely new self-designed machine should have a dedicated flight simulator for the design and use of test pilots. First of all, chief test pilot for the feelings of the aircraft characteristics, aircraft design in order to ensure good and safe flight test pilot for the training of the second to reduce the flight time. This is my visit to see the formation of foreign information and ideas, so in the "Flying Leopard" development process, home flight simulation test laboratory on the special attention.
In 1984 to 1985, every year I have heard several times to Yanliang reports in this regard, the introduction of simulators to support the hydraulic control system, organized in cooperation with the Beihang University to develop visual system demonstration and discussion, which is approximately in the officially launched in 1985, below the. Although they encounter in the course in the development of a number of technical issues, in particular the visual system BUAA the progress of a delay, but the flight simulator was developed in the aircraft played a role better. Statistics can be done here, is about XXX million investment, the utilization rate of lack of statistical data, the overall economic benefits are very good, of course, more important is to ensure that the maiden flight and later flight safety. Aviation history in China, developing the use of flight simulators, "Flying Leopard" is the first aircraft.
Fitted with head-up display with the INS and other advanced avionics equipment
"Feibao" supporting projects in the choice of aircraft is the end of the 70s last century, when the flight parameters for the head-up display and flight navigation with the INS have been installed in the use of advanced countries, while China is still in its infancy. Some studies on the basis of the development unit, enthusiasm high, strongly recommended by the host; types chief architect, chief architect of the unit comrades, users also have the desire or the military, but technically, especially in the light aircraft such as F-8 Development experience on the new machine can not support too many products too new, or they will be dragging the whole development. Also in this context, the study agreed that the use of walking on two legs. First choice of aircraft technology is mature and the optical target 210 Doppler navigation system, and head-up display, inertial navigation system developed to carry out immediately, and signed with the host of technical agreements and economic contracts.
In fact China's head-up display, inertial navigation equipment, the introduction of a number of technology based on the rapid development in 1989 and 1990, F-7 aircraft and change of F-8 Ⅱ used machine oil HUD INS, but also for the "Flying Leopard" INS 563 backup equipment; at this time the military (ie Navy) require "Flying Leopard" installed HUD, INS, and the third time in 1990 as a field office will be the subject of an official. At that time, the progress of the chief architect of fear can not keep up, the system tests, and afraid of the impact of the aircraft type; the site office will consider the development of technology must be installed still, it is agreed there are difficulties such as the progress may not be stereotyped as a test project. I think the decision is correct, to fully implement. But not expected to meet quite a few things: The first is with a certain type of air-to-ship missile fire control system for technical co-ordination difficult. Hospitals aerospace industry found that the original and the development of Shanghai's 615 Doppler navigation system 210 to coordinate missile accuracy to meet the requirements of, and coordination of 563 INS did not have enough precision errors; at winning red, left refused to coordination has not yet been exported, then, this is the first major problem encountered;
Second, HUD, the former INS to the lack of development costs, but also re-signed to supplement the capacity of the products and the cost of further tests;
The third is the issue of flight. The original arrangement of missile fire control system 210 Doppler equipment used in the test No. 84 and playing rounds, and INS is No. 85 on the test, while it is responsible for Gun shooting, firing air-to-air missiles, and bombs to vote. This
Like a missile launch when a certain type of air traffic there will be no examination of the inertial navigation system installed 563 fire control system, so there was not an aircraft is both打炮, playing air-to-air missiles, and bombs for air-to-ship missile launchers and other weapons of integrity testing machine; these changes is because many ill-considered and thoughtful, it is technically feasible detour away;
Fourth, in the plane after an official with INS, 210 Doppler navigation system developed over the years to meet the design specifications, how to arrange? Reasonable 6 15 speakers should be made to compensate for appropriate economic, but the system in China is not the case of sound is impossible. These are past the basic use of administrative means, repeated coordination, persuasion, through appropriate increase in the pilot project, to give some funding to, and here is the administrative means to play a leading role. However, as technology management, the chief architect of the system to sum up experience, can not complain about more than change. In fact, more than a decade in the development process, as compared with "Flying Leopard" with foreign aircraft development in the process of change, referred to the new requirements of the military is not that much, the key is due to our lack of experience.
Power units available in this hand has become a "chronic"
"Flying Leopard" is the aircraft project in February 1977, the engine choice is a contract in December 1975 the introduction of the MK from the United Kingdom a bay 202, then bought a full set of 50 machine as well as technical information and production rights; Xi'an Engine in the British assistance of the successful trial in 1980 and British domestic bay so qualified engine bench test. This is the condition of the new aircraft development was very good and unique, really easy reach; not only is a ready-made engine, and high reliability, this type of aircraft in flight and give full play to its advantages. However, the aircraft type and aircraft production after more than 10, and in 2000 a new machine there is no engine used (made of the bay - turbofan 9 - can not provide the time being), the aircraft may be faced with a situation in production, so that distressed people.
回忆往事, so that the engine problems are many reasons today, after the stresses from use:
1. In grasping "Feibao" aircraft development at the same time, the engine caught on very weak, there is no existing basis in the accelerated development of domestic production. Such as in the second half of 1979 in two batches of 4 engines installed, and in 1980 at 2-5 after passing the test and then the United Kingdom to work, save money and get the time, but also become a driving force for aircraft development . This means in practice is its own line, is a leader in decision-making mistakes;
2. Far away in the late 80's, CSTIND Xie Guang, Vice Director of the engine bay is a "one use, the Second Amendment, three, and four to" approach, when we all support, and work hard. In December 1990 in the fourth on-site office will be made part of the work stem from the 1991, but due to lack of funds, progress再施delayed so that the work of a comprehensive domestic postponed. Now look at determination of the engine is not under, such as the resolute decision to conduct a comprehensive home-made, is to reverse the passive situation of today. Cautiously, step-by-step arrangement of the bay to make some people full of confidence domestically, the "Flying Leopard" hesitate to wait and see the next stage of development engines. Air Force aircraft to the relevant departments in full swing not to mention the delays in the development of requirements, not do anything, I was looking at how the engine do? Some people say that. At that time, no money. Air Force will be fitted out actual money to come to vote;
3. There are differences of interference. Engine bay is the "Flying Leopard" aircraft of international and domestic conditions of matching the best projects, the engine itself is a bit backward, but it matches with the aircraft to ensure that the overall superiority of the aircraft, particularly low-altitude combat capability, and some people would like to exchange high - performance engine actually are not realistic. However, in the military and the industrial sector, some people are against the bay, stressed that the engine behind the well-known face, has also hampered the early to get the engine of domestic;
4. Bay we made underestimated the complexity of the work that has been "very good" condition, easy to grasp them, the fact that touched the wall. Past experiences, and now want to make great efforts to eliminate interference engine bay made efforts for two years to get hands. "Flying Leopard" is a further improved air, naval a new generation of equipment, access to 20 years.
Bay approved aircraft engine may hinder the production, the impact of troops and equipment, as the competent authority for the development of this project I have long predicted, and we will continue to reflect the parties concerned to report and write a special material. In addition, prepare to be done, not only do not contribute to domestic production abroad means to give up. In May 1991 the British Rolls-Royce to explore the super-7 aircraft and 199 when a driving force for RB, the officer told us about the British Air Force retired the F-4H engine bay of the aircraft and equipment matters relating to the British that they Maintenance given, respectively, 300,500,700 d ', at this point to attract the residual life of me, that we might consider the introduction of these engines. I got Wang Ang, vice minister of the support, with the British talk about this for several years, but because of opposition from some staff members did not materialize. I still believe that this path is wrong with "Flying Leopard" continuous line of production aircraft not clever but a practical way.
Click here to stress once again that, in 1993 CSTIND office will be the seventh time at the scene, which I drafted to Defense Secretary Zhang Zhi, sea loaded aircraft, Minister of the Department of Xu Ganquan the name of three of us made a "unified awareness, pay close attention to 'Flying Leopard' shape and accelerate the work of the armed forces, "a written statement, which made the engine is a priority! However, this issue has not been able to get a better solution, so that no new production of aircraft engines can be used, and regrettable.
Problems in the engine, there is something unforgettable. Deputy commander of the Air Force early in 1994 Lin Hu recommendations: first the former Soviet Union installed a MiG-29 aircraft P Ⅱ a 33 engine, later replaced by the development of 624 middle-thrust turbofan engine. The proposal received the consent of the Central Military Commission Vice Chairman Liu Huaqing, was a result of the Navy and the industrial sector that does not work, and equipment from the Department of the General Staff in July 25, 1994 _27 Air Force Logistics in Nanyuan hostel of experts will discuss "Feibao "modification of aircraft engines pushing the issue. At Navy, Army ASTRI, a professor at National Defense University experts are to think: "Flying Leopard" tonnage of the total weight of the aircraft properly, double, twin, medium aspect ratio, good layout后掠角medium, as can land, sea and air operations,载弹量large, functional and more suitable for a supersonic fighter-bombers are the future demands of actual combat; request as soon as possible, as soon as possible, as much as possible the production of such equipment, high reliability, low-altitude engine bay a good win to aircraft. Developed in the push to re-cycle may be very long, so it does not work, this will be the end of the story. On the transition of the former Soviet Union used a MIG-29 P Ⅱ a 33 engine problems, the meeting also said that some, mainly small thrust can not guarantee the performance of the aircraft, and the change would not be easy for them, after the test to work, we need to re - test to stereotypes, only this will not be able to demonstrate more. In order to reverse this chaotic situation, the Navy and the industrial sector in charge of the work carried out by staff is worth a thousand words that are not ultimately agree with the leadership of the engine bay is still loaded, Feibao "renewal" even if the storm subsided.
"Flying Leopard" installed stability, good reliability of the engine bay to ensure that the 9-year 1600 test flight sorties stereotypes, and the subsequent trial, and bear the force "99 10" task proved to be successful; adhere to the general direction of non-renewal has been and will continue to prove that was right. In short, do not mature is not for the engine. Due to the general direction set in the aircraft development, production development, in urgent need of more time for the engine, or determined to buy the British retired, "worthy of use", "worthy" in the engine bay for nearly 80 units, the actual use of engine 55 to be made 9 turbofan not needed before.
232H radar technologies
"Flying Leopard" installed aircraft by the Ministry of Electronics Industry, Lanzhou 781 plant developed in the early 80s on the air, on land, sea multi-function fire control radar, aircraft to meet its design performance of the tactical and technical requirements; development time a little progress significant tension, but the basic machine can keep up with the installation of radar flight test requirements. However in 1991 the radar to adjust radar performance test found very poor, not the design of indicators; the high failure rate, can not be stereotyped into the flight, the main question is: 1. Air-to-air target not found in the state of continuous instability intercepted track 2. Goal of the open space to tell the state of confusion on the ground and found that difficult; 3. Poor reliability of the radar machine, a high failure rate.
In view of the radar can not engage in normal flight, it was suggested that for the radar; says the immediate development of a new radar, that the difficulty of this high is unlikely; no longer be imported from abroad, mainly to buy Russian MiG aircraft equipment -29 "beetle" radar. It should be said that this is a path to explore, when the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Minister Lin Zongtang formal report to the Central Military Commission Vice Chairman Liu Huaqing, and asked us to clarify the feasibility of doing the work. Yanliang flight I was in hospital, is Mao Dehua Secretary to call me personally, and I explained the phone's own fear, for fear of endangering the fix will be "Flying Leopard" as well as the development of flight. Subsequent discussions with the comrades at that time that can be used to buy is not used. Contacts with Russia and argues that the most Shaandan can also take three years to get the radar installed in future have to address the problem of batch production; this route also may have political, economic, technological risk, once the drag there are half-way away "Feibao" the risk of the aircraft. By and the Navy, the electronics division, Comrade Factory 7 81 studies, the same ideas to improve the existing radar. In October 1992 installed in the sea meets the relevant organs of the comrades of Beijing agreed with 781 Factory, Xi'an Aircraft design engineers and other units of the proposed multi-232H radar technology research programs, including:
1. Aircraft to hood (radome) and the 232H radar antenna test match and to take appropriate technical measures to eliminate the state of a high degree of air-to-air clutter;
2. For the test problems, on the radar for four changes, namely, the use of phase-locked LO to replace the original hot and cold with the system, re-designed computer, the use of raster scanning systems in place to change the design of systems;
3. Strive to improve the reliability of the radar is mainly carried out the extension to change the design, the use of large-scale integrated circuits, so that the number of radar components to reduce the more than 9300 original to more than 6000.
In December 1992 CSTIND Yanliang held in "Flying Leopard" on-site office at the sixth, after listening to the reports CSTIND Xie Guang, deputy director of the instructions: "Since ancient times, Huashan road test aircraft type, original 232H radar unchanged, agreed to the problems of radar technology research, "and the implementation of the funding. Changed the design of research work together with the reliability of some common × X × million. "Feibao" The reason why there is today, with the right decision-making on key issues and technical research is inseparable from the success and should be summed up. Is the "Flying Leopard" installed aircraft new and better future of the radar, 232H is the historical role of the radar should be yes.
New evaluation of aircraft flight, I as the FT-7, F-7 Ⅲ, F-8 Ⅱ several new aircraft models such as the flight director, has organized the maiden flight of concrete experience.
"Feibao" aircraft in December 1988 when the organization first review about nearly 400 people (not including the host plant), and that all newly developed or improved a total of 176 projects, involving 10 ministries and 81 for the system works the person in charge of technology
Members, military representatives and the relevant departments and the military authorities sent representatives to participate, it is necessary to review whether there is one flying conditions, it is necessary to ensure flight safety, in charge of the officers concerned to sign the review. Specific and detailed work, the host, the plant is basically the entire mobilization, separate organizations to participate in the review. As the chief architect of the system to ensure that the executive head of staff, is basically a matter to worry about the coordination of differences of opinion and "passing" issue.
1. On the installed "black box" problem. "Black box" (the accident flight recorder) as a problem flying, in the past, the maiden flight of the new machines are not installed, Feibao first machine has not loaded, but the first time in the clinical test to Comrade hospital to have installed. Installed "black box" to carry out any modification to the aircraft, it takes time, with a total system that pilots at the airport on a flight over the ups and downs of navigation, in the sight of almost all, the installed "black box" is largely meaningless. With differences, it is up to report separately. The past has focused on the military aircraft models Bureau tube, and the development of the "Flying Leopard" at the Department of organs Bureau has set up a test flight; on behalf of Lee screen test Board Secretary agreed to test the views of homes, and military chain of command on behalf of the executive board and I am a total division agreement, it is clear this is a very organized bodies tend to result, so that systems engineering can not. At this time the two bodies in charge of Wang Ang, vice minister also did not link for some reason, I have honestly急死people. After repeated coordination, decided to simplify the installation state of the black box, the main flight parameters measured were very small, quickly completed the modified aircraft. Developed when the aircraft commander-in-chief Wang Ang, vice minister of the Yan-liang at the scene, heard the report, the chief architect of the aircraft Chen Jian, chief engineer Yi Zhibin flying after the signing of the approval; chief Air Force test pilot is the new Bin-Chung Huang, head of flight test missions, the back seat of navigation XING members only pilot, director of the ground迪宇Peng, deputy head of the command.
Previous focus on the new machine is a first assessment, in the professional assessment of the group there is a field service, maintenance and assessment of flight conditions, in the first and then the normal procedure when flying signature. In the "Flying Leopard" approach to be done in the previous review, the Board also invited organizations test a separate assessment of a gang of people, this is a result of repeated duplication of institutions, the complexity of the work.
2. The issue of engine flying. Matching system for all plant products, and are responsible to report to the panel to discuss the adoption of signature; while the engine bay, Xi'an engine companies do not want to sign in when flying, on the grounds that the engine bay is not that they produced (UK LAW Romanian company). In fact the engine has been introduced by the plant is responsible for understanding technology, inventory the library to check the engine, test carried out by the plant, the requirements are "Flying Leopard" costs of development, and given certification, these things are contract of. But at that time to be in charge of the factory, but do not want to sign to release at this time we found the authority responsible for my people, repeatedly doing the work of reason, of course, there is criticism, or the signing of the final. Their experience is to develop the technical agreement, the contract should take into account all aspects of the matter, clearly written item, must be responsible persons, not simplistic.
3. First landing occurred when the front wheel shimmy. Three-point landing gear before the aircraft, the front wheel shimmy is very dangerous, so before the maiden flight of the special arrangements for the test, but the result is a problem, the aircraft was riddled with shimmy. Pilots talk about: the cockpit before the dashboard can not see the word, as if to loose shelves, lost a good few tables, more than 20 meters short of aircraft that is out of the runway, stopped after radar detected vibration mounting brackets are broken. Unexpected incidents, there are scared! Experience is the pre-flight ground tests simulated real enough, failed to detect problems early; better quickly find the reason, be repaired quickly to develop the aircraft has not caused a big impact, but it really should be a historic lesson . The safety of flight must be careful!
Ong Ming aircraft rudder
"Flying Leopard" onto the aircraft after the flight are more the size of fault, which is the most headache is transonic vertical flight aircraft vibration. As far as I fly record with statistics, from November 17, 1989 the first plane 81 of vertical vibration bad tip, to August 25, 1992 83 aircraft due to intense vibration of the rudder to fly out of more than two years for stereotypes of the five flight test aircraft in addition to an evening flight from the factory less, had not occurred, the remaining four have been
More than 10 times the problems, including bad vertical vibration tip, ventral fin, rudder and so on. In 5000 ~ 9000 meters high, 0.9 ~ 1.04 Mach number of the transonic flight phase, as long as it is gradually entering the vibration must occur (to enter the speed zone may be crossed vibration).
The nature of the initial vibration, resulting in that a variety of reasons, such as the view that the original tip of the antenna to provide the local oscillator, a sharp vertical vibration caused by the weak structure, but also that vertical bending stiffness is mainly generated by the weak. Have taken all appropriate measures, then it seems better, but soon there is vibration, but also add to the trend, the problem did not resolve. Therefore, the chief architect of the aircraft in accordance with the requirements of Chen Jian, Zhang Kerong by the Chinese Academy of vice president of flight agree that they are in the vertical plane 83 near the rudder leading edge root and tip vibration sensor installed to the measured mode shape of the air and the order of magnitude, by the vice president of the new driving test to do a hero Huang Bingqiu vibration test.
August 25, 1992 morning, the plane took off after the 3000 meters in the high altitude, Mach number 0.8,0.85,0.9 when there was no vibration, flight is normal. Aircraft at 8000 meters high rise, 0.8M, 0.85M without vibration, when the table speed increased to 800 km / h when the aircraft about 1.04M obvious vibration. Closed throttle deceleration and then dropped when the 5000 meters high, 0.8M, 0.9M to normal level flight, the aircraft accelerated to 1.03M unacceptable vibration. After continued growth, with an increase of M increased vibration, 1.07M, 1.09M instruments within the cockpit when the aircraft are not clear indicators swing plane may fall to pieces. Closed throttle when the rear of the aircraft and issued a noise, aircraft sluggish, very calm, when the rudder had been ripped, by virtue of the driver safety superb smooth flying skills to fly back to the airport, setting the plane landed safely without rudder miracle. Measured by out data analysis, that is a typical rudder Ong Ming (Vibration is a destructive form).
To further analyze the causes of alarms generated Ong and solutions, decided to invite Yanliang, the factory / 10 outside experts to conduct in-depth discussion. September 1, 1992 meeting on the 2nd end. Experts, especially Professor Nan Elizabeth西工大Ong Ming vibration in the form set out at the same time, tell the "Flying Leopard" design of the aircraft rudder was mainly lack of torsional stiffness, the focus is still too weak axis, after the elastic deformation forces, and in Transonic flight control surface when there is elastic deformation, resulting in shock before and after the move of "Ong-ming." Tip has at times not to bad and bad rudder, which is mainly local stiffness weak tip, resulting in forced vibration caused. Unified understanding of the meeting, agreed on a solution. Lin Zongtang former Minister of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics was Yanliang inspection, subject to listen to the expert group report, the experts expressed their thanks to the hard work. , The factory, the hospital comrades, especially those in charge of the leadership attaches great importance to this meeting, the recommendations seriously and take the fast and good measure, so that aircraft flying transonic vertical vibration "difficult" issues have been removed at the end of resolved; This "Flying Leopard" aircraft is a very important event, that is, after the design of the new machine should also bear in mind the lessons learned.
"Feibao" type test
As we all know, "Feibao" type of aircraft flight time workload, five machine 82 test items, test 9 sorties in 1603; projects and more complex, such as the fire control system to test the air, on land, sea features, test equipment used in measuring light, telemetry, and a considerable number of live examination; new product is also more than 176 most of all in-flight test, in addition to other aircraft (such as F-7 Ⅱ, FT-6, F-6, Yun-5, "the call" and H-5) flew 305 sorties, the other major new products have to fly in this machine, such as radar, INS, 210 Doppler navigation systems, missile fire control system, the launch of a certain type of research trials bombs, shells, etc. to fight stereotypes. I have been to the sea test 4 times, each time I have to fly in with the office or at the scene, the deep, house plants, especially test flight in the organization of work in different places is very good, very structured organization .
Shape of the new test machine, I experience how much a little balance; in 1985 to 1987 served as the F-8 Ⅱ, F-7 Ⅲ, FT-7 aircraft type III, deputy commander-in-chief test (is the commander-in-chief, Vice-Minister Wang Ang), basically Yanliang test in perennial house. F-7 Ⅲ test several times in the side of the landing gear appeared to fit the situation in the air, the air for one or two are not fit to take the time continued to 3,4 months; once to switch the air not to repeat the success of a number of strengths the ground is ready to made an emergency landing, after a last-ditch effort to release a success. This experience made me test the new machines have experience of large risks.
F-8 Ⅱ, FT-7 is primarily in the test did not risk too much of Sui and progress smoothly. But the "Flying Leopard" is not, since 1989 has been adjusted stereotypes flight until the end of 1995 to 7 years, to take part in the work of the majority of people, including me, always in a very nervous state. The reason is that: 1. New aircraft and more new products, lack of experience so that people can "birth" are concerned; 2. More initial failures, oil spills, leaks, leak, leakage (electromagnetic interference), out of rivets, such as the skin cracks open fault in the first two years of flying, that is, from 1989 to 1990 often. On a flight out of the aircraft can be limited, to be flying venue, the original single-aircraft machine arrangements 2 to 3 per flight could not finish most missions, only the completion of 30 ~ 40%, mainly multi-failure. Old unable vexing flight plan 1 3. Sui constant risk, the main landing gear pivot point C (the root of a fixed point) crack, automatic air down the side of flap, two successive fuel 60mm thick lead pipe was torn off and a large number of oil spills in the air; aircraft tail vibration vibration lead to crack bad vertical vibration, ventral fin, rudder more than that the last flight out the rudder; there are a number of flights landing at the runway from the side fell out of mud, in Yanliang, Xingcheng have happened. Fortunately, in my 7 years did not have the level of flight accident, but the spirit has always been true in a very nervous state. Test in two cases occurred in the fuel pipe leading air was torn off and the aircraft returned to the rear landing field a白雾soon missing more than two tons of oil, the time came to a halt on the runway has been little oil; Fortunately, the pilot found As early as back in time, otherwise the difference between a few minutes on the plane going out in the over-the-counter, will result in serious accidents. After the rain there is in flight, due to leakage relays, air circuit automatically connect to aircraft automatic flap side down; at that time only a few hundred meters altitude, the aircraft suddenly rolling is very dangerous. In retrospect, really scared! Recall of these, it is necessary to emphasize again and again, the new test machine must do everything possible to strengthen the organization and management, and seriously good quality and safety of the clearance.
The later rounds to fight stereotypes and make up two years of flying, including INS, the test flight is to end in 1997, for a total of 9 years; this case thought, time and some long. Flying sorties to count, the machine which machine a total of 1908 flight sorties per aircraft per year is flying small aircraft; flight recorded a registration form from 1989 to 1991 have basically 3ff training pilots, flight schedule and adjust it. No. 85 the fifth frame is 5 November, 1991 test was submitted to hospital, while the latter two years 1996 and 1997 is mainly a certain type of shell shape and the individual projects up to fly, that is, for hanging up shells flying aircraft and INS only a few sorties task. Type of aircraft flight in 1992 was mainly completed in 1995, some of which were ranked test it. The former two years after 3 years and add up to 5 years to do compression in 2 to 3 years, is entirely possible that this is for product quality and organization and management is wrong. This is certainly not what a, what a few people, but from the technology, production quality, and overall strengthening of the organization and management to start, but I think the most important thing is the work of the organization and management.
"Feibao" sea test is the industrial sector and the military cooperation, the joint trial. Cooperation is not bad, quite a few contradictions. 1. On the site. "Feibao" aircraft to be referred to the Liaodong Bay marine field test of the subject in the early 80's to come in 1986 or the year .1985. Six former Defense Agency, Navy aircraft and aviation equipment industry focus on the new machine to do the responsible person in charge of the joint to Shanhaiguan comrades, Xingcheng investigation, I was one of the main members. Linked by air-to-ship missiles to the H-6 Haihang troops in Shanhaiguan shared with the Civil Aviation Airport to fly, the original Department of Space Hospitals Comrade cooked, and that this airport bomb arsenals, so that the conditions have been used to fly "Feibao" comrades of the aviation sector also have such an idea. Shanhaiguan to repair the runway but, more important is the Navy's deputy commander Li personally investigated, that the Navy put Xingcheng Airport Flight School.
At that time, the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, as well as six CSTIND Bureau, Ministry of the sea plane loaded comrades want to use H-6 to the path, stressing there is no bomb Xingcheng library, there is no hangar, in various aspects of Shanhaiguan shun some work; After several investigations, an attempt to repair the runway and flight test that can be staggered. "Flying Leopard" release Shanhaiguan sea conditions test the best venues, but Li is scheduled to release Xingcheng deputy commander, can not be changed. At that time, we speculated that the head may want to test drive the adoption of a new building to bring together Xingcheng airport. Xingcheng let the facts prove that it is appropriate, as "Flying Leopard" Xingcheng sea flying test subjects at sea more than a long time (before and after 4 years), on the combat troops and civil aviation airport is the common defect of Shanhaiguan ; test drive the adoption of a new machine you Xingcheng airport construction, as the industrial sector should be supported. 2. Navy flight test base hospital and the division of labor difficult. Home is engaged in aviation flight flight testing and identification of product units that they should be responsible for a certain type of aircraft to fit the air-to-ship missile fire control system test, identification and the use of test equipment; and naval test base's mission is to test identification of ships and the use of weapons by sea (including air-to-ship missiles), the accuracy of missiles and fire control system can not do without, it should also be testing base that they are responsible, should be installed on board of their test equipment. This has held only four or five times, the years have been spent pulling unclear, because of arguments could not convince each other more with each other. CSTIND later issued a document in principle, is based on their understanding of the work separately. Higher authorities in the step-by-step help and coordination with each other, and gradually move forward to running. Test equipment on board the flight home was mainly to test the base of individual equipment is also installed. Later in the plane and on the ground, the pilot for the Navy base in the ground radar and telemetry theodolite, optical measurement data and Hospitals director on board the use of the data are contradictory, there had been each other to provide information on the impact of work to do.
Over the division of flight also involves setting committee will be appointed and the division of sea interface, because they can not experience the past, some controversy is inevitable, but in the future should have to abide by rules and regulations. Can find a source of drafting to all parties concerned to discuss the revised final version, issued by the competent authorities to implement.
3, the airspace, the use of hard waters. Pilot workload, and will involve many issues, the complexity of the relationship; technical issues, and more subject to the control conditions. To complete a scientific research flight vehicles, first of all on board equipment is better, is often a failure of radar, radio. Followed by ground-based radar, telemetry theodolite optical measurement, such as better, which is very difficult because the equipment is too old, more than one optical measuring theodolite齐武text is often uneven. The third is better weather, the rain season in this region have great visibility and foggy poor, the impact of test results; and waves can not be great, otherwise do not target ship out; difficult to clean up the waters Fourth, in the past, a particularly large number of vessels and fishing vessels; Fifth airspace to able to tune to open with a piece of airspace in Jinzhou, Shanhaiguan, Suizhong, Xingcheng, such as flying aircraft have had to queue up. Naval test base is often the task of conflict, many things short of trouble, it is very difficult to work.
For all these, "Flying Leopard" is a step-by-step coordination of the models, and gradually came running, and with a very long time. Next modified test machine should seek ways to improve, or may be more difficult, as also involved in the Air Force, Air Force test base and more units. Therefore recommended that future large-scale test of this scene, there is real power to organize the coordination of scheduling agencies, to progress faster if it is very difficult.
Aircraft reliability, maintainability (R, M) the issue of aircraft reliability, maintainability (R, M) for worse, the equipment is one of the important issues of life and death, is welcome and accept the forces the aircraft to customs importance; because of reliability, poor maintenance of the aircraft very difficult to ensure timely implementation of combat orders, combat mission completed. "Feibao" aircraft design began in the late 70s, early 80s, when our design team knows very little about the reliability of aircraft, in this regard is not specifically taken into account; Fortunately, also in 1990 or later, defense Science and Industry Commission set aside a section for active duty and in the research models to improve reliability, the maintenance work. Since then is the key aircraft parts and all the new annex as well as the manipulation of products, hydraulic, fuel, flight control, fire control systems, such as a reliability comprehensive lessons done a great deal of experimental research to improve all the weak links. The original service life of only 2 to 3 years, 200 to 300 flying hours are up to 8 years 700 hours, an increase of 2 ~ 3 times. Only 3 to 4 years, about × XX × million on completion of such a major project, a huge success. Also in the maintenance of a lot of work to do. Haihang organizations in three years 1990,1991 "Feibao" aircraft maintenance f Health Research, review, raised a total of 224 observations (the first 176, second 9, third 39), the joint research in the trial approved the grant and 1 for change 171; the remaining 53, after repeated consensus study, still using the original design state. Commitment to the development of the relevant tasks, the factory, the hospital sector on the use of the request, his attitude reflects the dedication and spirit of a conscientious and responsible, these are the "Flying Leopard" popular forces today an important aspect of love.
Shanhaiguan fly in "9910" mission (the founding of the military parade in 50 years) of the aircraft, 10 aircraft flying 70 sorties a day, a very high attendance; forces early in the new machine when there is such a success, I think the international level, This is certainly due to the reliability and maintenance make up a missed lesson. Would like to stress here that the CSTIND reliability, maintenance and remedial decision-making entirely correct, the competent authorities at all levels conscientiously grasp is meritorious. This fully reflects the research and development in the new machine the importance of organization and management.
To force early delivery of production aircraft approved trial
"Feibao" aircraft from December 14, 1988 the maiden flight in December 1990 to the fourth office CSTIND when the scene is over two full years, the aircraft in flight three, there are flight test Machine 2 will certainly be able to pay in 1991, the factory test house, then consider: 1. Although the small aircraft to fly, but that will not be a major issue subversive; 2. The production of new machines from the preparation, ordering products installed (new 176) to the aircraft, the fastest 3 years, 4 years before the general will be submitted to the Air Force, the general manager of XAC邵国斌office will lead to the proposed site , requested the meeting agreed to a number of companies producing aircraft ready to carry out preparation work is expected to vote. At that time, the Navy leadership and the General Staff did not table Comrade views CSTIND Xie Guang, deputy director of a number of aircraft is not clear when the vote is expected, but the proposed aircraft delivered in 1994 to have force. This means that when the vote is expected, all set by the factory. Shao, general manager came to me after the talk that the risk would also be expected to get the materials ready for work. My personal opinions of authorities, it is recommended to see a year, the software can do the plan. Be on the plane in 1994 to force the request to pay a new course, a good, if not, pay 2 to complete the three tasks stereotypes trial batch test aircraft or aircraft should also be considered to pay the troops.
In fact the fifth aircraft in November 1991 to be submitted to test homes. In June 1991 in the fifth on-site office, when the progress of offensive stereotypes test, mainly to adjust and test scheduling it, the little fly type subjects, there will be no problem in terms of new aircraft production. 1992 until the end of the sixth on-site office will be again, if the head is still talk of living; but this time a plant is determined, the actual operations in 1993, 3 years later in 1995 that is a force to the delivery of new aircraft. CSTIND Xie Guang, deputy director in 1994, forces have to deliver the requirements of the aircraft also realized that after a year 992,1993-site office will be two of the trial whether or not to lease the aircraft to deliver troops, paying a few planes, which cross - several discussion brewing on the issue of non-payment of pay, to pay his speech, Comrade the General Staff. As for paying a few planes, three views of the industrial sector, the Navy claims 2, CSTIND two cross-heads. Which has two arguments, the head of the navy later said, according to the views of the industrial sector, cross-End stereotypes first test flight of the 81 subjects and 82 of the two machines; pay troops before a major overhaul factories from this part of the money to pay troops, costs fees from consumer research and account fees. The two machines in the second half of 1994 to return to the West from the test house to begin flying the company overhaul, painting and so on, in 1995 the troops.
This paper is to explain: 1. The industrial sector by the Institute of Plant Defense, the military head of the speech is a serious request, and do everything possible to carry out the implementation; 2. There are some things to have predictable, long gestation, early work schedule can be achieved basically; what happened there is no need for the ideologically and organizationally prepared to work, it is difficult to achieve the desired objectives. Would like to stress that some things still have to plant a little courage, if necessary, some risks have to dare to Tam. In a number of production issues, plant is dry at risk, 'get a little more time, and its inestimable value! It is likely to be as responsible for the "9910" laid the foundation for the task, and "9910" task Feibao aircraft in the history of the development will be an extremely valuable possession.
The convening of "Flying Leopard" will review the design of stereotypes
"Feibao" aircraft flight test work of stereotypes, is the climax in 1993, flying nearly 500 sorties a year, high efficiency; with the first two years of flight, aircraft have been flying after the basic performance, indicators to meet the design requirements, data has been received in hand. Consideration in late 1993, after the test flight in 1994, aircraft systems, weapons, can fly End products can be requested at the end of flight is scheduled to convene to do aircraft design review will be stereotypes, was scheduled to run Comrade oral route promised to be arranged. 19 94 However, the end of the year, very good shape test the progress of the work achieved by the plan, the remaining few items, but the test report did not take out a large amount of data to organize, write a formal technical report, it is to spend time; at that time to require at least six months That is to say, to 1995 7 to 8 months to complete, the idea failed in 1994.
February 1995 15 to 17 in Xi'an Yanliang Defense held a "Flying Leopard" on-site office will be the eighth, when the aircraft has been flying nearly 1,500 sorties, with the exception of a certain type of air-to-ship missile fire control system would also like to fly , shells also hit, the aircraft performance and flight of the system have been finished. It was agreed in 1995, ahead of the aircraft, the design of stereotypes review scheduled flight operators will also be included in the annual plan. In this year, our industrial sector will be invited to do aircraft comrades, the military equipment and sea CSTIND Yanliang authorities to check the six comrades to listen to design, test house, factory reports provide guidance and asked for urged to speed up the work. However, 8 in September asked to apply for the design of the report had not yet been reported stereotypes, stereotypes that have not yet completed test report, the aircraft will be repeatedly stressed comrades do: 1. Hospitals must get stereotyped flight test report; 2. Division to get the total system, the Navy and industry to review the application of the design report stereotypes; 3. To show that the Navy's conventional weapons systems and a certain type of air-to-ship missile weapon system in the two test machines (the former No. 85, which is No. 84), not a machine is equipped with all the weapons have been integrated with the test, how review the design of stereotypes (this is a loophole, but the chief architect, vice president flight test division emphasized that the outline shape is a flight review by experts, aircraft operators will be approved); 4. Air will be also stressed the need to do the entire weapon system (meaning air-to-ship missile first shape) design stereotypes review, ahead of the aircraft that did not have to file (which means it CSTIND minutes-site office will not do).
As a result, in 1995, "Flying Leopard" aircraft design and difficult to shape the review. Some people have lost faith, because if over a certain type of stereotyping, such as bombs, shells and then come up with the report of the application of stereotypes is in 1997 or after. However, the industrial sector and marine equipment managers in the directorate's support, did not lose confidence, it can be said for this is run off his leg.
In short we are in 1995 in their work on three fronts: 1. Stereotyped grasping end test, this time with particular emphasis on flight safety. 2. Grasp the design, production, test summary report. In addition to 70 and sea-based means to do scheduling in the field every day, week-week meeting, regular briefings issued, the authorities continue to comrades to the site supervision and inspection, demands, and criticism, or the progress on such a delay was mainly heavy workload and demanding, and more repeatedly. 3. To grasp the design of the existing stereotypes supporting the work finished. There are 2 products matching the beginning of the year 5 to 6, such as radar 232H, 563 INS, 622 flight control, 210 Doppler navigation system, as well as several of the three types of finished products is very difficult, mainly in the number of test问题. Really busy these flights will be run out of comrades, and through repeated work, and ultimately be resolved.
Comrades of the industrial sector bodies and the Department of the sea plane fitted together so Haihang Comrade, Comrade aircraft scheduled to do work that the repeated organization, factory, hospital listening to the reports to learn more about the situation, clarify our office and on-site will views. During this time a certain type of air-to-ship missile test shells (the Department of Hospitals aerospace design and development) of great help, it is to live up to expectations; in 10 to 11 months had 6 fat 6 to prove that bombs and fire control systems are very good ( the production of stereotypes is only temporary shells do not come out), first designed for the aircraft type to create a very favorable review of the conditions. However, Office He scheduled flight path, or insist on the total, did not complete a full set of weapons loaded aircraft must have an official document of the problem.
Click here to say, the sea filled with comrades, especially the division Xu Ganquan total outstanding contribution made. Personally for his deputy commander of the Navy He reported the case, the deputy commander of the naval He work, and finally to the aircraft by the Navy set out to do a formal document, acknowledged by the experts invited to discuss all aspects of assessment of all relevant parties the approval of the outline and the shape of its flight test results, agreed to review the status of the design of shape (I know more than the effect); is implemented in December 1995 in the aircraft scheduled to run under the auspices of Xian on Renmin Square in the completion of the first type aircraft design review for the delivery of aircraft and aircraft approved the creation of the conditions of production.
Please list the Air Force improved faster loading
From the decision in 1986 to concentrate on doing better seat string type, the requirements of the Air Force and Block-based research carried out the time being since the first, with the exception of the host subject of argument by some studies, very few people to raise the issue. On the one hand is busy with work, some trade-off; the main idea or the Air Force was also used string Block, and Block, asked not to be so severe.
October 1988 27 to 30, I went with the Air Force deputy commander of the Chengdu Lin Hu check development projects, one day Lin deputy commander of the morning with a walk in the hospital, I reported the "Flying Leopard" Development progress made during the year will be able to first, please consider the use of the Air Force. Lin was deputy commander of the speakers: 1. Block and Block, or the string is not a big problem, the Air Force Block string can also be used. 2. The main problem is the current engine bay hair now. 2. The main problem is the current engine, engine bay is now only a few so will the production of several aircraft, how well familiar with the Navy's competition for the engine? I said: the Navy has not only to a few aircraft, the engine is always to solve the problem, it can be resolved. Lin stresses the deputy commander at the time: the engine problem this big, not very well resolved.
Lin Hu deputy commander of the message states: "Flying Leopard" Block Series Air Force aircraft platform able to accept, but it is not satisfied with the used engine is not in favor of domestic production from the United Kingdom introduced the engine bay. Again here, the engine bay, on the one hand is to promote the "Flying Leopard" Development of a driving force, and its high reliability to ensure that the stereotypes test; on the other hand, due to the handling of non-determination, no determination made as early as impeding the " Feibao "forces to become the new generation of aircraft and equipment.
"Flying Leopard" Development of a time when success in sight, from the beginning of the year 1992,1993, organized by the Xi'an Aircraft Design for air force, the Navy's request to do a new design of improved research work, many times to report to the military officers; LI Hongyi, director of personally led to the air, naval authorities, and air and a demonstration of the reporting unit and for comments, of course, each must have the original Defense, the Department and the Department of the General Staff and equipment, authorities reported instructions Corporation. As far as I know had a series of 4 to 5 years, perseverance and dedication. Comrades of the navy and air authorities also organized research unit of the military personnel to Yan-liang, the factory, the hospital conducted an investigation and study. Such as the February 21, 1994, I accompanied the eight total space division Comrade Wang Ming with the professionals by the Xi'an Aircraft Design, Xi'an Aircraft Company, the Air Force Research Institute test the use of "Flying Leopard" aircraft. The main change he advocated the electronic fire control and weapons, the overall structure of the aircraft and the engine should not be changed, these ideas are very conducive to early to get the equipment for China's national conditions, I will help to accelerate the improvement of the Air Force equipment. However, within the controversy said to them is still the focus of the engine problems, there are some people, however to turn this one through. Of course there was more to change the views of small differences, so that delay the development of the aircraft to improve as long as 6,7 years, until August 1999 to be finalized. Therefore, I call it a matter of regret sad. "Air File" magazine in 2009 the first five
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a-man in the future when you post something like that, can you do a summary of translation or a full translation? google translate is the worst, it barely says anything.
oh,no.bd popeye is everywhere.
[side view] JH-7A Vs Canceled JH-7B.
“JH-7B” use “S” air inlet
a perspective drawing of structure
waiting for J14..
goumax..you need to read the forum rules.
bd popeye super moderator
Last edited by guomax; 06-21-2009 at 12:22 AM. Reason: comment